This is the Assignment:

t Tests

t Test for a Single Sample (20 points)

Open SPSS

Enter the number of activities of daily living performed by the depressed clients studied in #1 in the Data View window.

In the Variable View window, change the variable name to “ADL” and set the decimals to zero.

Click Analyze Compare Means One-Sample T test the arrow to move “ADL” to the Variable(s) window.

Enter the population mean (17) in the “Test Value” box.

Click OK.

1. Researches are interested in whether depressed people undergoing group therapy will perform a different number of activities of daily living after group therapy. The researchers have randomly selected 12 depressed clients to undergo a 6-week group therapy program.

Use the five steps of hypothesis testing to determine whether the average number of activities of daily living (shown below) obtained after therapy is significantly different from a mean number of activities of 17 that is typical for depressed people. (Clearly indicate each step).

Test the difference at the .05 level of significance and at the .01 level (in SPSS this means you change the “confidence level” from 95% to 99%).

As part of Step 5, indicate whether the behavioral scientists should recommend group therapy for all depressed people based on evaluation of the null hypothesis at both levels of significance.

CLIENT AFTER THERAPY

A 18

B 14

C 11

D 25

E 24

F 17

G 14

H 10

I 23

J 11

K 22

L 19

t Test for Dependent Means (20 points)

Open SPSS

Enter the number of activities of daily living performed by the depressed clients studied in Problem 2 in the Data View window. Be sure to enter the “before therapy” scores in the first column and the “after therapy” scores in the second column.

In the Variable View window, change the variable name for the first variable to “ADLPRE” and the variable name for the second variable to “ADLPOST”. Set the decimals for both variables to zero.

Click Analyze Compare Means Paired-Samples T Test the arrow to move “ADLPRE” to the Paired Variable(s) window “ADLPOST” and then click the arrow to move the variable to the Paired Variable(s) window.

Click OK.

2. Researchers are interested in whether depressed people undergoing group therapy will perform a different number of activities of daily living before and after group therapy. The researchers have randomly selected 8 depressed clients in a 6-week group therapy program.

Use the five steps of hypothesis testing to determine whether the observed differences in numbers of activities of daily living (shown below) obtained before and after therapy are statistically significant at the .05 level of. (Clearly indicate each step).

As part of Step 5, indicate whether the researchers should recommend group therapy for all depressed people based on evaluation of the null hypothesis at the .05 level of significance and calculate the measure of association.

CLIENT BEFORE THERAPY AFTER THERAPY

A 11 17

B 7 12

C 10 12

D 13 21

E 9 16

F 8 17

G 13 17

H 12 8

The t Test for Independent Samples (20 points)

Once you have entered the data, click on Analyze, then on Compare Means, and then click on Independent-Samples T Test…

A dialog box will appear, with your variables (student, condition, score) on the left. Your options are (a) move one or more variables into the “Test Variable(s)” box to select your dependent variables(s) and (b) move one of your variables into the “Grouping Variable” box to select the independent variables (or identify the groups to be compared).

Make “?” the dependent variable by moving it to the “Test Variable(s)” box. Then make “?” your independent variable by moving it to the “Grouping Variable” box. Now, the “Define Groups” button is functioning, click on Define Groups and another dialog box appears. Here you must specify the two values of the condition variable that represent the two groups you are comparing. Click in the box next to Group 1 and type the number 1, then click in the box next to Group 2 and type the number 2. Now you can click Continue to return to the “Independent-Samples T Test” dialog box, and click on OK to run the analysis.

3. Six months after an industrial accident, a researcher has been asked to compare the job satisfaction of employees who participated in counseling sessions with the satisfaction of employees who chose not to participate.

The scores on a job satisfaction inventory for both groups are listed in the table below.

Use the five steps of hypothesis testing to determine whether the job satisfaction scores of the group that participated in counseling are statistically higher than the scores of employees who did not participate in counseling at the .01 level of significance.

As part of Step 5, indicate whether the researcher should recommend counseling as a method to improve job satisfaction following industrial accidents based on evaluation of the null hypothesis and calculate the measure of association. NOTE: Do not forget to give a numeric value for those who participated in counseling (e.g. 0) and those who did not participate in counseling (e.g. 1).

PARTICIPATED IN COUNSELING DID NOT PARTICIPATE IN COUNSELING

36 38

39 36

41 36

36 32

37 30

35 39

37 41

39 35

42 33

ANOVA (20 points)

Open SPSS

Analyze the data for #1. Remember that SPSS assumes that all the scores in a row are from the same participant. In this study, there are 15 participants divided into three groups of five. Therefore, each of the 15 participants will be described by two variables, type of therapy and the number of activities of daily living performed.

If “1” represents the group receiving individual therapy for 1 hour every 2 weeks, “2” represents the group receiving 1 hour of individual therapy each week, and “3” indicates the group receiving 2 hours of individual therapy each week, the first participant will be described by entering “1” in the top cell of the first column in the Data View window and “16” in the top cell of the second column to indicate that the participant underwent 1 hour of therapy every 2 weeks and performed 16 activities of daily living. The second participant will be described by “1” and “15”, and the third by “1” and “18”.

When the two variables have been entered for the five participants in this group, repeat the process for participants who underwent 1 hour of individual therapy each week, using “2” to describe their therapy group. When the two variables for the five participants in this group have been entered, repeat the process for Group 3, entering “3” in the first column. In the Variable View window, change the first variable name to “THERAPY” and the second to “ADL” and set the decimals for both to zero.

Click Analyze Compare Means One-Way ANOVA Since “THERAPY” is already selected, you can click the arrow to move the variable to the Factor window. Select “ADL” and click the arrow to move the variable to the Dependent List window, which instruct SPSS to conduct the analysis of variance on the number of activities performed.

Click “Options” and click the box labeled “Descriptive” to obtain descriptive statistics.

Click Continue.

Click OK.

4. Keep in mind that the clients in Group 1 will receive 1 hour of therapy every 2 weeks, the clients in Group 2 will receive 1 hour of therapy every week, and the clients in Group 3 will receive 2 hours of therapy every week.

Use the five steps of hypothesis testing to determine whether the observed differences in the number of activities in the following table performed by the three groups are statistically significant at the .05 level of significance. Clearly indicate each of the five steps.

CLIENT GROUP 1 GROUP 2 GROUP 3

1 16 21 24

2 15 20 21

3 18 17 25

4 21 23 20

5 19 19 22

5. Describe the circumstances under which you should use ANOVA instead of t tests, and explain why t tests are inappropriate in these circumstances.

Chi-Square (20 points)

Chi-Square

SPSS instructions:

Chi-Square Test for Goodness of Fit:

Open SPSS

Remember that SPSS assumes that all the scores in a row are from the same participant. In the study presented in #1, there are 20 students, some of whom have been suspended for misbehavior. The primary conflict-resolution style used by each student is also entered. [Ignore the first variable in this analysis.]

When you have entered the data for all 20 students, move to the Variable View window and change the first variable name to “SUSPEND” and the second to “STYLE”. Set the number of decimals for both variables to zero.

Click Analyze Non-Parametric Tests Chi-Square

Click the variable “STYLE” and then the arrow next to the box labeled “Test Variable List” to indicate that the chi-square for goodness of fit should be conducted on the conflict-resolution style variable.

Note that “All categories equal” is the default selection in the “Expected Values” box, which means that SPSS will conduct the goodness of fit test using equal expected frequencies for each of the four styles, in other words, SPSS will assume that the proportions of students each style are equal.

Click OK.

Chi-Square Test for Independence:

Open SPSS

For #2, you need to add the variable “SUSPEND” to the analysis. Remember that in this problem, we are interested in whether there was an association between conflict-resolution style and having been suspended from school for misbehavior. Since the analysis will involve two nominal variables, the appropriate test is a chi-square test for independence.

Click Analyze Descriptive Statistics Crosstabs

Since “SUSPEND” is already selected, click the arrow next to the box labeled “Rows.”

Click the variable “STYLE” and click the arrow next to the box labeled “Columns.”

Click “Statistics” and click the box labeled “Chi-Square.”

Click Continue.

Click “Cells” and click the box labeled “Expected.”

Click Continue.

Click OK.

6. The following table includes the primary method of conflict resolution used by 20 students.

Method Aggressive Manipulative Passive Assertive

N of Students 8 2 2 8

a. Following the five steps of hypothesis testing, conduct the appropriate chi-square test to determine whether the observed frequencies are significantly different from the frequencies expected by change at the .05 level of significance. Clearly identify each of the five steps.

7. Next, researchers categorized the students based on the primary method of conflict resolution used and whether the student had been suspended from school for misbehavior. These data are presented below.

Method

Suspended Aggressive Manipulative Passive Assertive Total

Yes 7 1 1 1 10

No 1 1 1 7 10

Total 8 2 2 8 20

a. Following the five steps of hypothesis testing, conduct the appropriate chi-square test to determine whether the observed frequencies are significantly different from the frequencies expected by change at the .05 level of significance. Clearly identify each of the five steps.

b. Calculate the measure of association.

8. Believing that assertiveness is the most effective method of conflict resolution, the researchers categorized students so that the aggressive, manipulative, and passive categories were combined. These data are presented in the table below.

Conflict Resolution

Suspension from School Assertive Other Total

Yes 1 9 10

No 6 4 10

Total 7 13 20

a. Following the five steps of hypothesis testing, conduct the appropriate chi-square test to determine whether the observed frequencies are significantly different from the frequencies expected by change at the .05 level of significance. Clearly identify each of the five steps.

b. Explain your results.]]>

This is the Assignment:

t Tests

t Test for a Single Sample (20 points)

Open SPSS

Enter the number of activities of daily living performed by the depressed clients studied in #1 in the Data View window.

In the Variable View window, change the variable name to “ADL” and set the decimals to zero.

Click Analyze Compare Means One-Sample T test the arrow to move “ADL” to the Variable(s) window.

Enter the population mean (17) in the “Test Value” box.

Click OK.

1. Researches are interested in whether depressed people undergoing group therapy will perform a different number of activities of daily living after group therapy. The researchers have randomly selected 12 depressed clients to undergo a 6-week group therapy program.

Use the five steps of hypothesis testing to determine whether the average number of activities of daily living (shown below) obtained after therapy is significantly different from a mean number of activities of 17 that is typical for depressed people. (Clearly indicate each step).

Test the difference at the .05 level of significance and at the .01 level (in SPSS this means you change the “confidence level” from 95% to 99%).

As part of Step 5, indicate whether the behavioral scientists should recommend group therapy for all depressed people based on evaluation of the null hypothesis at both levels of significance.

CLIENT AFTER THERAPY

A 18

B 14

C 11

D 25

E 24

F 17

G 14

H 10

I 23

J 11

K 22

L 19

t Test for Dependent Means (20 points)

Open SPSS

Enter the number of activities of daily living performed by the depressed clients studied in Problem 2 in the Data View window. Be sure to enter the “before therapy” scores in the first column and the “after therapy” scores in the second column.

In the Variable View window, change the variable name for the first variable to “ADLPRE” and the variable name for the second variable to “ADLPOST”. Set the decimals for both variables to zero.

Click Analyze Compare Means Paired-Samples T Test the arrow to move “ADLPRE” to the Paired Variable(s) window “ADLPOST” and then click the arrow to move the variable to the Paired Variable(s) window.

Click OK.

2. Researchers are interested in whether depressed people undergoing group therapy will perform a different number of activities of daily living before and after group therapy. The researchers have randomly selected 8 depressed clients in a 6-week group therapy program.

Use the five steps of hypothesis testing to determine whether the observed differences in numbers of activities of daily living (shown below) obtained before and after therapy are statistically significant at the .05 level of. (Clearly indicate each step).

As part of Step 5, indicate whether the researchers should recommend group therapy for all depressed people based on evaluation of the null hypothesis at the .05 level of significance and calculate the measure of association.

CLIENT BEFORE THERAPY AFTER THERAPY

A 11 17

B 7 12

C 10 12

D 13 21

E 9 16

F 8 17

G 13 17

H 12 8

The t Test for Independent Samples (20 points)

Once you have entered the data, click on Analyze, then on Compare Means, and then click on Independent-Samples T Test…

A dialog box will appear, with your variables (student, condition, score) on the left. Your options are (a) move one or more variables into the “Test Variable(s)” box to select your dependent variables(s) and (b) move one of your variables into the “Grouping Variable” box to select the independent variables (or identify the groups to be compared).

Make “?” the dependent variable by moving it to the “Test Variable(s)” box. Then make “?” your independent variable by moving it to the “Grouping Variable” box. Now, the “Define Groups” button is functioning, click on Define Groups and another dialog box appears. Here you must specify the two values of the condition variable that represent the two groups you are comparing. Click in the box next to Group 1 and type the number 1, then click in the box next to Group 2 and type the number 2. Now you can click Continue to return to the “Independent-Samples T Test” dialog box, and click on OK to run the analysis.

3. Six months after an industrial accident, a researcher has been asked to compare the job satisfaction of employees who participated in counseling sessions with the satisfaction of employees who chose not to participate.

The scores on a job satisfaction inventory for both groups are listed in the table below.

Use the five steps of hypothesis testing to determine whether the job satisfaction scores of the group that participated in counseling are statistically higher than the scores of employees who did not participate in counseling at the .01 level of significance.

As part of Step 5, indicate whether the researcher should recommend counseling as a method to improve job satisfaction following industrial accidents based on evaluation of the null hypothesis and calculate the measure of association. NOTE: Do not forget to give a numeric value for those who participated in counseling (e.g. 0) and those who did not participate in counseling (e.g. 1).

PARTICIPATED IN COUNSELING DID NOT PARTICIPATE IN COUNSELING

36 38

39 36

41 36

36 32

37 30

35 39

37 41

39 35

42 33

ANOVA (20 points)

Open SPSS

Analyze the data for #1. Remember that SPSS assumes that all the scores in a row are from the same participant. In this study, there are 15 participants divided into three groups of five. Therefore, each of the 15 participants will be described by two variables, type of therapy and the number of activities of daily living performed.

If “1” represents the group receiving individual therapy for 1 hour every 2 weeks, “2” represents the group receiving 1 hour of individual therapy each week, and “3” indicates the group receiving 2 hours of individual therapy each week, the first participant will be described by entering “1” in the top cell of the first column in the Data View window and “16” in the top cell of the second column to indicate that the participant underwent 1 hour of therapy every 2 weeks and performed 16 activities of daily living. The second participant will be described by “1” and “15”, and the third by “1” and “18”.

When the two variables have been entered for the five participants in this group, repeat the process for participants who underwent 1 hour of individual therapy each week, using “2” to describe their therapy group. When the two variables for the five participants in this group have been entered, repeat the process for Group 3, entering “3” in the first column. In the Variable View window, change the first variable name to “THERAPY” and the second to “ADL” and set the decimals for both to zero.

Click Analyze Compare Means One-Way ANOVA Since “THERAPY” is already selected, you can click the arrow to move the variable to the Factor window. Select “ADL” and click the arrow to move the variable to the Dependent List window, which instruct SPSS to conduct the analysis of variance on the number of activities performed.

Click “Options” and click the box labeled “Descriptive” to obtain descriptive statistics.

Click Continue.

Click OK.

4. Keep in mind that the clients in Group 1 will receive 1 hour of therapy every 2 weeks, the clients in Group 2 will receive 1 hour of therapy every week, and the clients in Group 3 will receive 2 hours of therapy every week.

Use the five steps of hypothesis testing to determine whether the observed differences in the number of activities in the following table performed by the three groups are statistically significant at the .05 level of significance. Clearly indicate each of the five steps.

CLIENT GROUP 1 GROUP 2 GROUP 3

1 16 21 24

2 15 20 21

3 18 17 25

4 21 23 20

5 19 19 22

5. Describe the circumstances under which you should use ANOVA instead of t tests, and explain why t tests are inappropriate in these circumstances.

Chi-Square (20 points)

Chi-Square

SPSS instructions:

Chi-Square Test for Goodness of Fit:

Open SPSS

Remember that SPSS assumes that all the scores in a row are from the same participant. In the study presented in #1, there are 20 students, some of whom have been suspended for misbehavior. The primary conflict-resolution style used by each student is also entered. [Ignore the first variable in this analysis.]

When you have entered the data for all 20 students, move to the Variable View window and change the first variable name to “SUSPEND” and the second to “STYLE”. Set the number of decimals for both variables to zero.

Click Analyze Non-Parametric Tests Chi-Square

Click the variable “STYLE” and then the arrow next to the box labeled “Test Variable List” to indicate that the chi-square for goodness of fit should be conducted on the conflict-resolution style variable.

Note that “All categories equal” is the default selection in the “Expected Values” box, which means that SPSS will conduct the goodness of fit test using equal expected frequencies for each of the four styles, in other words, SPSS will assume that the proportions of students each style are equal.

Click OK.

Chi-Square Test for Independence:

Open SPSS

For #2, you need to add the variable “SUSPEND” to the analysis. Remember that in this problem, we are interested in whether there was an association between conflict-resolution style and having been suspended from school for misbehavior. Since the analysis will involve two nominal variables, the appropriate test is a chi-square test for independence.

Click Analyze Descriptive Statistics Crosstabs

Since “SUSPEND” is already selected, click the arrow next to the box labeled “Rows.”

Click the variable “STYLE” and click the arrow next to the box labeled “Columns.”

Click “Statistics” and click the box labeled “Chi-Square.”

Click Continue.

Click “Cells” and click the box labeled “Expected.”

Click Continue.

Click OK.

6. The following table includes the primary method of conflict resolution used by 20 students.

Method Aggressive Manipulative Passive Assertive

N of Students 8 2 2 8

a. Following the five steps of hypothesis testing, conduct the appropriate chi-square test to determine whether the observed frequencies are significantly different from the frequencies expected by change at the .05 level of significance. Clearly identify each of the five steps.

7. Next, researchers categorized the students based on the primary method of conflict resolution used and whether the student had been suspended from school for misbehavior. These data are presented below.

Method

Suspended Aggressive Manipulative Passive Assertive Total

Yes 7 1 1 1 10

No 1 1 1 7 10

Total 8 2 2 8 20

a. Following the five steps of hypothesis testing, conduct the appropriate chi-square test to determine whether the observed frequencies are significantly different from the frequencies expected by change at the .05 level of significance. Clearly identify each of the five steps.

b. Calculate the measure of association.

8. Believing that assertiveness is the most effective method of conflict resolution, the researchers categorized students so that the aggressive, manipulative, and passive categories were combined. These data are presented in the table below.

Conflict Resolution

Suspension from School Assertive Other Total

Yes 1 9 10

No 6 4 10

Total 7 13 20

a. Following the five steps of hypothesis testing, conduct the appropriate chi-square test to determine whether the observed frequencies are significantly different from the frequencies expected by change at the .05 level of significance. Clearly identify each of the five steps.

b. Explain your results.]]>

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Part 1 of 1 -

Question 1 of 20

1.0 Points

A correlation describes the relationship between two:

A.equal-interval numeric variables

B.scatterplots

C.standard deviations

D.horizontal axes Reset Selection

Question 2 of 20

1.0 Points

Which of these statements is TRUE when drawing a scatter diagram?

A.The highest number should start where the axes meet.

B.The variable that predicts the other goes on the vertical axis.

C.The variable that predicts the other goes on the horizontal axis.

D.The variable that is being predicted goes on the horizontal axis. Reset Selection

Question 3 of 20

1.0 Points

What is the difference between a positive correlation and a negative correlation?

A.In a negative correlation high scores go with high scores and low with low; in a positive correlation high scores go with low scores and low with high.

B.In a negative correlation high scores go with low scores and low with high; in a positive correlation high scores go with high scores and low with low.

C.Negative correlations are curvilinear; positive correlations are straight lines.

D.Negative correlations represent a weak relationship; positive correlations represent a strong relationship. Reset Selection

Question 4 of 20

1.0 Points

A researcher discovers that if people eat a certain fruit before a test, the more fruit eaten, the better they do on the test. Beyond a certain point, however, the more fruit eaten the worse people do on the test. The relation between amount of fruit eaten and how well people do on the test is an example of:

A.a positive linear correlation

B.a curvilinear correlation

C.a negative linear correlation

D.no correlation Reset Selection

Question 5 of 20

1.0 Points

A study found that absenteeism from work had a negative linear correlation with job satisfaction. This means that:

A.the higher the level of job satisfaction, the higher the level of absenteeism

B.the lower the level of job satisfaction, the higher the level of absenteeism

C.the lower the level of job satisfaction, the lower the level of absenteeism

D.level of job satisfaction is unrelated to absenteeism Reset Selection

Question 6 of 20

1.0 Points

When is the correlation coefficient zero?

A.It is never zero

B.When there is no linear correlation

C.When there is a perfect positive linear correlation

D.When there is a perfect negative linear correlation Reset Selection

Question 7 of 20

1.0 Points

Researchers say that a correlation is significant if:

A.the dots appear to form a straight line on the scatter diagram

B.there is a small probability, such as 5% or 1%, that you could have obtained a correlation this big if in fact there had been no correlation in the population at large

C.the correlation is .05 or greater (or below -.05 if negative).

D.there is a large probability (.50 or larger) that this correlation is greater than that computed in standard tables of what is called the chi-square distribution Reset Selection

Question 8 of 20

1.0 Points

If researchers were to measure a couples’ level of exciting activities at one time and then examine the quality of their marriages several years later (as done by Tsapelas, Aron, & Orbuch, 2009), they would be carrying out a:

A.regression analysis

B.longitudinal study

C.true experiment

D.single case design Reset Selection

Question 9 of 20

1.0 Points

Figuring the multiple correlation coefficient allows you to:

A.view the correlation between different predictor variables, ignoring the criterion variable

B.view each predictor variable separately and correlate it with the criterion variable

C.correlate more than two predictor variables with more than two criterion variables

D.view the overall correlation between a number of predictor variables and one criterion variable Reset Selection

Question 10 of 20

1.0 Points

Sometimes a correlation coefficient is used to describe the consistency of a measure or test. One way to assess the consistency of a measure is to use it with the same group of people twice. The correlation between the two testings is:

A.correlation matrix

B.test–retest reliability

C.intrarater reliability

D.criterion validity Reset Selection

Question 11 of 20

1.0 Points

If you were looking at a graph of a normal distribution, which of the following would best describe it?

A.Bimodal and roughly symmetrical

B.Unimodal, roughly symmetrical, and bell-shaped

C.Skewed to the right

D.Roughly symmetrical and W-shaped Reset Selection

Question 12 of 20

1.0 Points

The _____________ explains why many distributions tend to be close to normal in the real world.

A.central limit theorem

B.normal curve table

C.Pythagorean theorem

D.triples list calculation Reset Selection

Question 13 of 20

1.0 Points

Relative frequency is:

A.the expected number of times you will obtain a particular outcome in an experiment

B.how frequently a result occurs

C.what result you expect if you repeat an experiment frequently

D.the number of times something occurs relative to the number of times it could have occurred Reset Selection

Question 14 of 20

1.0 Points

The fact that probabilities are proportions means that they:

A.have to be larger than one

B.can’t be lower than zero or more than one

C.can’t be lower than zero or more than .05

D.can be either a positive or a negative number Reset Selection

Question 15 of 20

1.0 Points

In figuring probabilities, expected relative frequency is:

A.how many times something happens

B.the result of an experiment

C.the number of successful outcomes divided by the number of total outcomes expected if you repeat an experiment a large number of times

D.the number of unsuccessful outcomes multiplied by the number of successful outcomes expected if you repeat an experiment a large number of times Reset Selection

Question 16 of 20

1.0 Points

You have an aquarium full of tropical salt-water fish and you need to know the exact salt content of the water. To test it, you take a cup and scoop some of the water out. In statistical language, the scoop of water is a:

A.population

B.parameter

C.sample

D.population distribution Reset Selection

Question 17 of 20

1.0 Points

You want to study the general amount of drug use at your university. You obtain a complete list of students. You then put all the names into a box and have a blindfolded person select as many people as you needed. This is called:

A.random selection

B.haphazard selection

C.specified selection

D.type B selection Reset Selection

Question 18 of 20

1.0 Points

You want to study the physical effects of caffeine. To recruit participants for your experiment you post a sign-up sheet for anyone willing to participate. This is an example of:

A.random selection

B.haphazard selection

C.stratified selection

D.type B selection Reset Selection

Question 19 of 20

1.0 Points

Whenever possible, researchers report the proportion of individuals approached for a study who actually participated. This is called:

A.attrition rate

B.random selection rate

C.approach rate

D.response rate Reset Selection

Question 20 of 20

1.0 Points

The actual values of the mean, variance, and standard deviation of a population are called:

A.sample statistics

B.population parameters

C.population Z scores

D.regressed standardized scores Reset Selection

Save

Exit]]>

Part 1 of 1 -

Question 1 of 20

1.0 Points

A correlation describes the relationship between two:

A.equal-interval numeric variables

B.scatterplots

C.standard deviations

D.horizontal axes Reset Selection

Question 2 of 20

1.0 Points

Which of these statements is TRUE when drawing a scatter diagram?

A.The highest number should start where the axes meet.

B.The variable that predicts the other goes on the vertical axis.

C.The variable that predicts the other goes on the horizontal axis.

D.The variable that is being predicted goes on the horizontal axis. Reset Selection

Question 3 of 20

1.0 Points

What is the difference between a positive correlation and a negative correlation?

A.In a negative correlation high scores go with high scores and low with low; in a positive correlation high scores go with low scores and low with high.

B.In a negative correlation high scores go with low scores and low with high; in a positive correlation high scores go with high scores and low with low.

C.Negative correlations are curvilinear; positive correlations are straight lines.

D.Negative correlations represent a weak relationship; positive correlations represent a strong relationship. Reset Selection

Question 4 of 20

1.0 Points

A researcher discovers that if people eat a certain fruit before a test, the more fruit eaten, the better they do on the test. Beyond a certain point, however, the more fruit eaten the worse people do on the test. The relation between amount of fruit eaten and how well people do on the test is an example of:

A.a positive linear correlation

B.a curvilinear correlation

C.a negative linear correlation

D.no correlation Reset Selection

Question 5 of 20

1.0 Points

A study found that absenteeism from work had a negative linear correlation with job satisfaction. This means that:

A.the higher the level of job satisfaction, the higher the level of absenteeism

B.the lower the level of job satisfaction, the higher the level of absenteeism

C.the lower the level of job satisfaction, the lower the level of absenteeism

D.level of job satisfaction is unrelated to absenteeism Reset Selection

Question 6 of 20

1.0 Points

When is the correlation coefficient zero?

A.It is never zero

B.When there is no linear correlation

C.When there is a perfect positive linear correlation

D.When there is a perfect negative linear correlation Reset Selection

Question 7 of 20

1.0 Points

Researchers say that a correlation is significant if:

A.the dots appear to form a straight line on the scatter diagram

B.there is a small probability, such as 5% or 1%, that you could have obtained a correlation this big if in fact there had been no correlation in the population at large

C.the correlation is .05 or greater (or below -.05 if negative).

D.there is a large probability (.50 or larger) that this correlation is greater than that computed in standard tables of what is called the chi-square distribution Reset Selection

Question 8 of 20

1.0 Points

If researchers were to measure a couples’ level of exciting activities at one time and then examine the quality of their marriages several years later (as done by Tsapelas, Aron, & Orbuch, 2009), they would be carrying out a:

A.regression analysis

B.longitudinal study

C.true experiment

D.single case design Reset Selection

Question 9 of 20

1.0 Points

Figuring the multiple correlation coefficient allows you to:

A.view the correlation between different predictor variables, ignoring the criterion variable

B.view each predictor variable separately and correlate it with the criterion variable

C.correlate more than two predictor variables with more than two criterion variables

D.view the overall correlation between a number of predictor variables and one criterion variable Reset Selection

Question 10 of 20

1.0 Points

Sometimes a correlation coefficient is used to describe the consistency of a measure or test. One way to assess the consistency of a measure is to use it with the same group of people twice. The correlation between the two testings is:

A.correlation matrix

B.test–retest reliability

C.intrarater reliability

D.criterion validity Reset Selection

Question 11 of 20

1.0 Points

If you were looking at a graph of a normal distribution, which of the following would best describe it?

A.Bimodal and roughly symmetrical

B.Unimodal, roughly symmetrical, and bell-shaped

C.Skewed to the right

D.Roughly symmetrical and W-shaped Reset Selection

Question 12 of 20

1.0 Points

The _____________ explains why many distributions tend to be close to normal in the real world.

A.central limit theorem

B.normal curve table

C.Pythagorean theorem

D.triples list calculation Reset Selection

Question 13 of 20

1.0 Points

Relative frequency is:

A.the expected number of times you will obtain a particular outcome in an experiment

B.how frequently a result occurs

C.what result you expect if you repeat an experiment frequently

D.the number of times something occurs relative to the number of times it could have occurred Reset Selection

Question 14 of 20

1.0 Points

The fact that probabilities are proportions means that they:

A.have to be larger than one

B.can’t be lower than zero or more than one

C.can’t be lower than zero or more than .05

D.can be either a positive or a negative number Reset Selection

Question 15 of 20

1.0 Points

In figuring probabilities, expected relative frequency is:

A.how many times something happens

B.the result of an experiment

C.the number of successful outcomes divided by the number of total outcomes expected if you repeat an experiment a large number of times

D.the number of unsuccessful outcomes multiplied by the number of successful outcomes expected if you repeat an experiment a large number of times Reset Selection

Question 16 of 20

1.0 Points

You have an aquarium full of tropical salt-water fish and you need to know the exact salt content of the water. To test it, you take a cup and scoop some of the water out. In statistical language, the scoop of water is a:

A.population

B.parameter

C.sample

D.population distribution Reset Selection

Question 17 of 20

1.0 Points

You want to study the general amount of drug use at your university. You obtain a complete list of students. You then put all the names into a box and have a blindfolded person select as many people as you needed. This is called:

A.random selection

B.haphazard selection

C.specified selection

D.type B selection Reset Selection

Question 18 of 20

1.0 Points

You want to study the physical effects of caffeine. To recruit participants for your experiment you post a sign-up sheet for anyone willing to participate. This is an example of:

A.random selection

B.haphazard selection

C.stratified selection

D.type B selection Reset Selection

Question 19 of 20

1.0 Points

Whenever possible, researchers report the proportion of individuals approached for a study who actually participated. This is called:

A.attrition rate

B.random selection rate

C.approach rate

D.response rate Reset Selection

Question 20 of 20

1.0 Points

The actual values of the mean, variance, and standard deviation of a population are called:

A.sample statistics

B.population parameters

C.population Z scores

D.regressed standardized scores Reset Selection

Save

Exit]]>

Question 1 of 25

0.8 Points

What is a hypothesis?

A.a procedure for using descriptive statistics in research

B.a set of theories about certain facts, relationships, or events

C.a prediction about the results of a research study

D.a way of quantifying the normal curve Reset Selection

Question 2 of 25

0.8 Points

A researcher tests whether a new teaching method is more effective than the old one. What is the RESEARCH hypothesis?

A.The new teaching method is more effective than the old teaching method.

B.The old teaching method is more effective than the new teaching method.

C.There is no difference in effectiveness between the old teaching method and the new teaching method.

D.There is some difference in effectiveness between the old teaching method and the new teaching method, but which is more effective is not predicted. Reset Selection

Question 3 of 25

0.8 Points

A researcher tests whether there is any difference between how fast people work in the morning versus how fast they work in the evening. What is the NULL hypothesis?

A.People who work in the morning work faster.

B.People who work at night work faster.

C.There is some difference, but which is faster is not predicted.

D.There is no difference in the speed at which people work. Reset Selection

Question 4 of 25

0.8 Points

What represents the situation in which the null hypothesis is true?

A.the comparison distribution

B.the directional distribution

C.the nondirectional distribution

D.a one-tailed test Reset Selection

Question 5 of 25

0.8 Points

A result is considered statistically significant when a sample value is so extreme that:

A.the research hypothesis is rejected

B.the null hypothesis is accepted

C.the research hypothesis is accepted

D.the null hypothesis is rejected Reset Selection

Question 6 of 25

0.8 Points

How do you determine whether or not to reject the null hypothesis?

A.If the Z score is less than 1 or greater than +1

B.If the Z score is greater than +2.5

C.Compare the Z score needed to reject the null hypothesis to the actual sample Z score

D.Compare the standard deviation of the sample to the standard deviation of the population Reset Selection

Question 7 of 25

0.8 Points

If the null hypothesis is rejected, the researcher can conclude that the results:

A.support the research hypothesis

B.prove that the research hypothesis is true

C.were inconclusive

D.support the null hypothesis Reset Selection

Question 8 of 25

0.8 Points

Which of the following is NOT a correct statement of one of the five steps of hypothesis testing?

A.Restate the question as a research hypothesis and a null hypothesis about the populations.

B.Determine the characteristics of the comparison distribution.

C.Determine the cutoff score on the sample distribution at which the research hypothesis should be rejected.

D.Decide whether to reject the null hypothesis. Reset Selection

Question 9 of 25

0.8 Points

There is a special complication when using a two-tailed test. The researcher must:

A.multiply the significance percentage by .05

B.divide the significance percentage by .05

C.divide up the significance percentage between the two tails of the distribution

D.divide up the significance percentage by the four quartiles of the distribution Reset Selection

Question 10 of 25

0.8 Points

A Type I error is the result of:

A.improper measurement techniques on the part of the researcher

B.failing to reject the null hypothesis when, in fact, it is true

C.incorrectly rejecting the null hypothesis

D.incorrectly accepting the null hypothesis Reset Selection

Question 11 of 25

0.8 Points

Type II errors concern scientists because:

A.it could mean that a good theory or beneficial practice is not used

B.it means that the experiment must be repeated to confirm the positive result

C.rejecting the null hypothesis should only occur when the research hypothesis is true

D.future researchers might build entire theories based on a mistakenly significant result Reset Selection

Question 12 of 25

0.8 Points

The distribution of means is also called:

A.distribution of samples of means

B.standard deviation of the mean

C.sampling distribution of the mean

D.sampling distribution of the mode Reset Selection

Question 13 of 25

0.8 Points

The distribution of means is the correct comparison distribution when:

A.there is more than one person in a sample

B.there is less than one person in a sample

C.the mean is greater than the median in your sample

D.the mode is equal to the mean and median in your sample Reset Selection

Question 14 of 25

0.8 Points

Knowledge of what three important characteristics of the comparison distribution is required for hypothesis testing?

A.the median, mean, and variance

B.the mean, median, and mode

C.the mean, spread, and shape

D.the mean, standard deviation, and size Reset Selection

Question 15 of 25

0.8 Points

In general, the shape of a distribution of means tends to be:

A.unimodal, symmetrical

B.bimodal, symmetrical

C.unimodal, skewed

D.rectangular, symmetrical Reset Selection

Question 16 of 25

0.8 Points

As the number of individuals in each sample gets larger, the distribution of means:

A.begins to look less and less like the normal curve (in terms of shape)

B.becomes a better approximation of the normal curve (in terms of shape)

C.becomes more positively skewed

D.becomes more negatively skewed Reset Selection

Question 17 of 25

0.8 Points

When a researcher has obtained a particular sample mean from a study, he or she compares it to:

A.the parameters of the known population distribution

B.an estimated distribution figured based on earlier research findings

C.the distribution of means of all the possible samples in the experimental condition from the research

D.the distribution of means that would arise if the null hypothesis were true Reset Selection

Question 18 of 25

0.8 Points

A distribution of means will be less spread out than the population of individuals from which the samples are taken because:

A.in a sample of scores, extremes tend to be balanced out, leaving fewer extreme means

B.in a sample of scores, there tend to be multiple extreme means

C.each sample is based on randomly selected individuals from the population

D.the more individuals in each sample, the more spread out will be the sample means Reset Selection

Question 19 of 25

0.8 Points

The standard deviation of the distribution of means is also known as the:

A.population standard deviation

B.variance of the error mean

C.standard error of the population

D.standard error of the mean Reset Selection

Question 20 of 25

0.8 Points

With samples of 30 or more individuals, the approximation of the distribution of means will be:

A.a bimodal distribution

B.a rectangular distribution

C.a normal curve

D.the distribution of Z scores Reset Selection

Question 21 of 25

0.8 Points

The variance of a distribution of means is the variance of the population of individuals:

A.multiplied by the number of individuals in each sample

B.divided by the number of individuals in each sample

C.squared

D.divided by the mean of the population Reset Selection

Question 22 of 25

0.8 Points

All of the following types of distributions are important for hypothesis testing EXCEPT:

A.the distribution of a population of individuals

B.the distribution of a particular sample of individuals taken from the population

C.the distribution of R scores

D.the distribution of means Reset Selection

Question 23 of 25

0.8 Points

The difference between creating a Z score from a single score and creating one from a sample mean is that:

A.you use the mean and standard deviation from the distribution of means

B.the estimated population variance is used directly

C.the difference score is divided by the sample’s standard deviation

D.only the population’s mean is used Reset Selection

Question 24 of 25

0.8 Points

The Z score of the sample mean on the distribution of means is:

A.different from a normal Z score because an estimated population standard deviation is used

B.smaller than normal due to the reduced variance in the distribution of means

C.conceptually similar to creating a Z score from a raw score

D.equivalent to the sample mean divided by the population variance Reset Selection

Question 25 of 25

0.8 Points

The best estimate of the population mean is the:

A.population median

B.sample mode

C.sample median

D.sample mean Reset Selection

Save

Exit

Submit for Grading]]>

Question 1 of 25

0.8 Points

What is a hypothesis?

A.a procedure for using descriptive statistics in research

B.a set of theories about certain facts, relationships, or events

C.a prediction about the results of a research study

D.a way of quantifying the normal curve Reset Selection

Question 2 of 25

0.8 Points

A researcher tests whether a new teaching method is more effective than the old one. What is the RESEARCH hypothesis?

A.The new teaching method is more effective than the old teaching method.

B.The old teaching method is more effective than the new teaching method.

C.There is no difference in effectiveness between the old teaching method and the new teaching method.

D.There is some difference in effectiveness between the old teaching method and the new teaching method, but which is more effective is not predicted. Reset Selection

Question 3 of 25

0.8 Points

A researcher tests whether there is any difference between how fast people work in the morning versus how fast they work in the evening. What is the NULL hypothesis?

A.People who work in the morning work faster.

B.People who work at night work faster.

C.There is some difference, but which is faster is not predicted.

D.There is no difference in the speed at which people work. Reset Selection

Question 4 of 25

0.8 Points

What represents the situation in which the null hypothesis is true?

A.the comparison distribution

B.the directional distribution

C.the nondirectional distribution

D.a one-tailed test Reset Selection

Question 5 of 25

0.8 Points

A result is considered statistically significant when a sample value is so extreme that:

A.the research hypothesis is rejected

B.the null hypothesis is accepted

C.the research hypothesis is accepted

D.the null hypothesis is rejected Reset Selection

Question 6 of 25

0.8 Points

How do you determine whether or not to reject the null hypothesis?

A.If the Z score is less than 1 or greater than +1

B.If the Z score is greater than +2.5

C.Compare the Z score needed to reject the null hypothesis to the actual sample Z score

D.Compare the standard deviation of the sample to the standard deviation of the population Reset Selection

Question 7 of 25

0.8 Points

If the null hypothesis is rejected, the researcher can conclude that the results:

A.support the research hypothesis

B.prove that the research hypothesis is true

C.were inconclusive

D.support the null hypothesis Reset Selection

Question 8 of 25

0.8 Points

Which of the following is NOT a correct statement of one of the five steps of hypothesis testing?

A.Restate the question as a research hypothesis and a null hypothesis about the populations.

B.Determine the characteristics of the comparison distribution.

C.Determine the cutoff score on the sample distribution at which the research hypothesis should be rejected.

D.Decide whether to reject the null hypothesis. Reset Selection

Question 9 of 25

0.8 Points

There is a special complication when using a two-tailed test. The researcher must:

A.multiply the significance percentage by .05

B.divide the significance percentage by .05

C.divide up the significance percentage between the two tails of the distribution

D.divide up the significance percentage by the four quartiles of the distribution Reset Selection

Question 10 of 25

0.8 Points

A Type I error is the result of:

A.improper measurement techniques on the part of the researcher

B.failing to reject the null hypothesis when, in fact, it is true

C.incorrectly rejecting the null hypothesis

D.incorrectly accepting the null hypothesis Reset Selection

Question 11 of 25

0.8 Points

Type II errors concern scientists because:

A.it could mean that a good theory or beneficial practice is not used

B.it means that the experiment must be repeated to confirm the positive result

C.rejecting the null hypothesis should only occur when the research hypothesis is true

D.future researchers might build entire theories based on a mistakenly significant result Reset Selection

Question 12 of 25

0.8 Points

The distribution of means is also called:

A.distribution of samples of means

B.standard deviation of the mean

C.sampling distribution of the mean

D.sampling distribution of the mode Reset Selection

Question 13 of 25

0.8 Points

The distribution of means is the correct comparison distribution when:

A.there is more than one person in a sample

B.there is less than one person in a sample

C.the mean is greater than the median in your sample

D.the mode is equal to the mean and median in your sample Reset Selection

Question 14 of 25

0.8 Points

Knowledge of what three important characteristics of the comparison distribution is required for hypothesis testing?

A.the median, mean, and variance

B.the mean, median, and mode

C.the mean, spread, and shape

D.the mean, standard deviation, and size Reset Selection

Question 15 of 25

0.8 Points

In general, the shape of a distribution of means tends to be:

A.unimodal, symmetrical

B.bimodal, symmetrical

C.unimodal, skewed

D.rectangular, symmetrical Reset Selection

Question 16 of 25

0.8 Points

As the number of individuals in each sample gets larger, the distribution of means:

A.begins to look less and less like the normal curve (in terms of shape)

B.becomes a better approximation of the normal curve (in terms of shape)

C.becomes more positively skewed

D.becomes more negatively skewed Reset Selection

Question 17 of 25

0.8 Points

When a researcher has obtained a particular sample mean from a study, he or she compares it to:

A.the parameters of the known population distribution

B.an estimated distribution figured based on earlier research findings

C.the distribution of means of all the possible samples in the experimental condition from the research

D.the distribution of means that would arise if the null hypothesis were true Reset Selection

Question 18 of 25

0.8 Points

A distribution of means will be less spread out than the population of individuals from which the samples are taken because:

A.in a sample of scores, extremes tend to be balanced out, leaving fewer extreme means

B.in a sample of scores, there tend to be multiple extreme means

C.each sample is based on randomly selected individuals from the population

D.the more individuals in each sample, the more spread out will be the sample means Reset Selection

Question 19 of 25

0.8 Points

The standard deviation of the distribution of means is also known as the:

A.population standard deviation

B.variance of the error mean

C.standard error of the population

D.standard error of the mean Reset Selection

Question 20 of 25

0.8 Points

With samples of 30 or more individuals, the approximation of the distribution of means will be:

A.a bimodal distribution

B.a rectangular distribution

C.a normal curve

D.the distribution of Z scores Reset Selection

Question 21 of 25

0.8 Points

The variance of a distribution of means is the variance of the population of individuals:

A.multiplied by the number of individuals in each sample

B.divided by the number of individuals in each sample

C.squared

D.divided by the mean of the population Reset Selection

Question 22 of 25

0.8 Points

All of the following types of distributions are important for hypothesis testing EXCEPT:

A.the distribution of a population of individuals

B.the distribution of a particular sample of individuals taken from the population

C.the distribution of R scores

D.the distribution of means Reset Selection

Question 23 of 25

0.8 Points

The difference between creating a Z score from a single score and creating one from a sample mean is that:

A.you use the mean and standard deviation from the distribution of means

B.the estimated population variance is used directly

C.the difference score is divided by the sample’s standard deviation

D.only the population’s mean is used Reset Selection

Question 24 of 25

0.8 Points

The Z score of the sample mean on the distribution of means is:

A.different from a normal Z score because an estimated population standard deviation is used

B.smaller than normal due to the reduced variance in the distribution of means

C.conceptually similar to creating a Z score from a raw score

D.equivalent to the sample mean divided by the population variance Reset Selection

Question 25 of 25

0.8 Points

The best estimate of the population mean is the:

A.population median

B.sample mode

C.sample median

D.sample mean Reset Selection

Save

Exit

Submit for Grading]]>

American Public University System

Final Portfolio Project (Due Week 8)

Overview

One of the most crucial components of this course is developing a research project from conceptualizing a research problem and develop a number of complementary design, measurement, and data collection approaches to bring evidence to bear on the problem. We are going to create a research study based on previous research you choose to use. We will then determine which variables we can use from the General Social Survey (GSS) which are representative of our interests and satisfy our research question and hypotheses. Not to worry, there are over 5,000 variables within this dataset to choose from.

This paper will enable us to complete the following objectives:

Describe and apply the concepts and logic of elementary statistics.

Conduct statistical analysis in SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences).

Compare and contrast different types of data and the statistics that can be used to analyze them

Examine the differences between descriptive and inferential statistics and their use in the social sciences.

Form critical interpretations of quantitative research literature in sociology and other social sciences.

Complete and interpret descriptive and inferential statistical data analysis

Critically evaluate the quality of research design and evidence in published social research.

Instructions

This paper is a compilation of the assignments and activities that you will complete for your weekly discussion forum posts. Each week you will have an activity to complete. You will post your work and engage with your instructor and classmates throughout the week to determine the “perfect” version of your work. In other words, you are expected to revise anything prior to placing it you’re your ‘Final Portfolio Project’ file.

You will create a designated word file to act as a repository of assignments. Each week you will copy and paste your work for the discussion board (not including your responses to classmates) into this file and format-as-you-go to become a cohesive paper. You are encouraged to use subheaders for each section. Construct a 2- 4 page paper that fully explores each of the following areas:

Each section should have information for context which provides your reader with the background necessary to understand what you are presenting. What I mean by this is that you will want to ‘present’ the topic of hypothesis testing while citing resources like Aron (your textbook) and other resources located in the class. You may than present your outline of this testing as it relates to your variables. Without context, the reader may be lost. Your professor is looking to see whether you understand what you are writing about, not simply going through the motions.

The project will be presented to the Professor as a professionally written paper approximately 5-7 pages in length, not including the title page or references section. In addition, this project will be presented to the class as a multimedia presentation using either Power Point with narration, Screencast-o-matic, or Prezi. Other programs need to be submitted to the instructor for review.

The following table is an outline of each task that you will complete on the discussion forums.

Project Outline

Week

Task

1

Choose a topic based on previous paper, assignment, or research

Post topic to the DB

2

Create frequency tables, including descriptive statistics data, and histograms. Provide a brief explanation of your findings.

3

Find correlation data for your variables

Identify a research question and develop your hypotheses (research and null). Also include if this is a directional or non-directional hypothesis

Clearly identify your variables (independent v. dependent, levels of measurement, if they are discrete or continuous, etc.)

4

Present research articles which utilize quantitative data

Write your literature review

* For the DF you will need to focus on critiquing the statistical process of these articles, BUT for your final portfolio project you will need to provide a literature review based on these articles. In other words, you will need to provide more of a comprehensive overview (as you would in a research paper) of these articles for the final version.

5

Crosstabulations with explanations

Look ahead to chapter 12

Determine your test statistic (see table for more details)

6

Determine your ideal test statistic (t test with a single sample or with independent means) and conduct the t test with your variables. You will be using gender as your IV for the discussion forum for practice. You may include this in your final paper so that your research is comprehensive by offering another variable consideration.

7

Perform the ANOVA test. You will need to choose an appropriate variable where many groups can be considered (religious background, political affiliation, level of education, SES, or income for example). Remember to regroup certain variables (income for example) to make reasonable categories.

Proofread the file and work on “tightening things up”

Do not forget to include your conceptual framework (based on a theory within your field of interest), literature review, research question and hypotheses

8

Submit your presentation to the discussion forum and comment on at least two classmate presentations.

* You will want to provide a brief introduction to the sections above in your final paper. For example, you may find that defining the concept or topic is a valid way for you to provide context for the reader. You will cite these definitions as you include them. This style of writing is expected and demonstrates your level of understanding and confidence using the material from class.

** Remember to revise as needed based on feedback you receive from your instructor and fellow classmates.

You will also include the following:

1) Citing your research, identify a conceptual framework which sets the stage for your research. Conceptual frameworks are particularly useful as organizing devices in empirical research. Likewise, conceptual frameworks are abstract representations, connected to the research project's goal that direct the collection and analysis of data. You will want to provide a theory as well. Perhaps you want to use one that is in your literature.

2) Include a short overview (no more than 3-5 sentences) on your instrument- the General Social Survey.

3) Provide the questions verbatim that were asked in the survey which became the variable which you chose to use. You will also need to include the answer choices for each of them. This portion can be a table if you choose.

Don’t forget to include proper APA-style citation and reference. However, you do NOT need to include an abstract or table of contents. You can find guidance in APA by clicking here to access the Purdue Online Writing Lab.

Due on by midnight the Sunday of Week 8 – submit using link in Sakai.

The paper should be typed, double-spaced, 1” margins, Arial or Times New Roman 11 pt font, and saved as .doc, or .docx in the format: lastname_SOCI332_FinalPort.doc

LATE POLICY:

Unless otherwise noted, all assignments are due by the end of each week – Sunday. If you anticipate that an assignment will be late, you must contact me immediately. Penalties will be assessed based on the reason for the late work, and the timeliness of notice. Late work will not be penalized if the reason falls under the following categories: documented long-lasting technical problems that are out of the student’s control, documented family emergencies, and documented extended illnesses.]]>

American Public University System

Final Portfolio Project (Due Week 8)

Overview

One of the most crucial components of this course is developing a research project from conceptualizing a research problem and develop a number of complementary design, measurement, and data collection approaches to bring evidence to bear on the problem. We are going to create a research study based on previous research you choose to use. We will then determine which variables we can use from the General Social Survey (GSS) which are representative of our interests and satisfy our research question and hypotheses. Not to worry, there are over 5,000 variables within this dataset to choose from.

This paper will enable us to complete the following objectives:

Describe and apply the concepts and logic of elementary statistics.

Conduct statistical analysis in SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences).

Compare and contrast different types of data and the statistics that can be used to analyze them

Examine the differences between descriptive and inferential statistics and their use in the social sciences.

Form critical interpretations of quantitative research literature in sociology and other social sciences.

Complete and interpret descriptive and inferential statistical data analysis

Critically evaluate the quality of research design and evidence in published social research.

Instructions

This paper is a compilation of the assignments and activities that you will complete for your weekly discussion forum posts. Each week you will have an activity to complete. You will post your work and engage with your instructor and classmates throughout the week to determine the “perfect” version of your work. In other words, you are expected to revise anything prior to placing it you’re your ‘Final Portfolio Project’ file.

You will create a designated word file to act as a repository of assignments. Each week you will copy and paste your work for the discussion board (not including your responses to classmates) into this file and format-as-you-go to become a cohesive paper. You are encouraged to use subheaders for each section. Construct a 2- 4 page paper that fully explores each of the following areas:

Each section should have information for context which provides your reader with the background necessary to understand what you are presenting. What I mean by this is that you will want to ‘present’ the topic of hypothesis testing while citing resources like Aron (your textbook) and other resources located in the class. You may than present your outline of this testing as it relates to your variables. Without context, the reader may be lost. Your professor is looking to see whether you understand what you are writing about, not simply going through the motions.

The project will be presented to the Professor as a professionally written paper approximately 5-7 pages in length, not including the title page or references section. In addition, this project will be presented to the class as a multimedia presentation using either Power Point with narration, Screencast-o-matic, or Prezi. Other programs need to be submitted to the instructor for review.

The following table is an outline of each task that you will complete on the discussion forums.

Project Outline

Week

Task

1

Choose a topic based on previous paper, assignment, or research

Post topic to the DB

2

Create frequency tables, including descriptive statistics data, and histograms. Provide a brief explanation of your findings.

3

Find correlation data for your variables

Identify a research question and develop your hypotheses (research and null). Also include if this is a directional or non-directional hypothesis

Clearly identify your variables (independent v. dependent, levels of measurement, if they are discrete or continuous, etc.)

4

Present research articles which utilize quantitative data

Write your literature review

* For the DF you will need to focus on critiquing the statistical process of these articles, BUT for your final portfolio project you will need to provide a literature review based on these articles. In other words, you will need to provide more of a comprehensive overview (as you would in a research paper) of these articles for the final version.

5

Crosstabulations with explanations

Look ahead to chapter 12

Determine your test statistic (see table for more details)

6

Determine your ideal test statistic (t test with a single sample or with independent means) and conduct the t test with your variables. You will be using gender as your IV for the discussion forum for practice. You may include this in your final paper so that your research is comprehensive by offering another variable consideration.

7

Perform the ANOVA test. You will need to choose an appropriate variable where many groups can be considered (religious background, political affiliation, level of education, SES, or income for example). Remember to regroup certain variables (income for example) to make reasonable categories.

Proofread the file and work on “tightening things up”

Do not forget to include your conceptual framework (based on a theory within your field of interest), literature review, research question and hypotheses

8

Submit your presentation to the discussion forum and comment on at least two classmate presentations.

* You will want to provide a brief introduction to the sections above in your final paper. For example, you may find that defining the concept or topic is a valid way for you to provide context for the reader. You will cite these definitions as you include them. This style of writing is expected and demonstrates your level of understanding and confidence using the material from class.

** Remember to revise as needed based on feedback you receive from your instructor and fellow classmates.

You will also include the following:

1) Citing your research, identify a conceptual framework which sets the stage for your research. Conceptual frameworks are particularly useful as organizing devices in empirical research. Likewise, conceptual frameworks are abstract representations, connected to the research project's goal that direct the collection and analysis of data. You will want to provide a theory as well. Perhaps you want to use one that is in your literature.

2) Include a short overview (no more than 3-5 sentences) on your instrument- the General Social Survey.

3) Provide the questions verbatim that were asked in the survey which became the variable which you chose to use. You will also need to include the answer choices for each of them. This portion can be a table if you choose.

Don’t forget to include proper APA-style citation and reference. However, you do NOT need to include an abstract or table of contents. You can find guidance in APA by clicking here to access the Purdue Online Writing Lab.

Due on by midnight the Sunday of Week 8 – submit using link in Sakai.

The paper should be typed, double-spaced, 1” margins, Arial or Times New Roman 11 pt font, and saved as .doc, or .docx in the format: lastname_SOCI332_FinalPort.doc

LATE POLICY:

Unless otherwise noted, all assignments are due by the end of each week – Sunday. If you anticipate that an assignment will be late, you must contact me immediately. Penalties will be assessed based on the reason for the late work, and the timeliness of notice. Late work will not be penalized if the reason falls under the following categories: documented long-lasting technical problems that are out of the student’s control, documented family emergencies, and documented extended illnesses.]]>

Word file (this file) saved as [your last name]_SOCI332_Weekly Assignment 8.doc

SPSS output file (.spv) saved as [your last name]_SPSS-week8_output

WEEKLY ASSIGNMENT 8 (the last one…you made it!)

Enter your answers in the spaces provided. Save the file using your last name as the beginning of the file name (e.g., Krieger_SOCI332_Weekly Assignment 8.doc) and submit via “Assignments.” When appropriate, show your work. You can do the work by hand, scan/take a digital picture, and attach that file with your work.

1. Make up and discuss research examples corresponding to the various techniques introduced throughout this course. Describe a plausible study for each of the following statistical procedures, indicating how it would apply and what results you would predict. Also include information about the number of participants you would assess and how you would go about estimating effect size and statistical power (when relevant).

a. correlation

b. multiple regression

c. t test for independent means

d. t test for dependent means

e. ANOVA

f. chi square for goodness of fit

g. chi-square test for independence

SPSS ASSIGNMENT

Chi-Square

SPSS instructions:

Chi-Square Test for Goodness of Fit:

Open SPSS

Remember that SPSS assumes that all the scores in a row are from the same participant. In the study presented in #1, there are 20 students, some of whom have been suspended for misbehavior. The primary conflict-resolution style used by each student is also entered. [Ignore the first variable in this analysis.]

When you have entered the data for all 20 students, move to the Variable View window and change the first variable name to “SUSPEND” and the second to “STYLE”. Set the number of decimals for both variables to zero.

Click Analyze Non-Parametric Tests Chi-Square

Click the variable “STYLE” and then the arrow next to the box labeled “Test Variable List” to indicate that the chi-square for goodness of fit should be conducted on the conflict-resolution style variable.

Note that “All categories equal” is the default selection in the “Expected Values” box, which means that SPSS will conduct the goodness of fit test using equal expected frequencies for each of the four styles, in other words, SPSS will assume that the proportions of students each style are equal.

Click OK.

Chi-Square Test for Independence:

Open SPSS

For #2, you need to add the variable “SUSPEND” to the analysis. Remember that in this problem, we are interested in whether there was an association between conflict-resolution style and having been suspended from school for misbehavior. Since the analysis will involve two nominal variables, the appropriate test is a chi-square test for independence.

Click Analyze Descriptive Statistics Crosstabs

Since “SUSPEND” is already selected, click the arrow next to the box labeled “Rows.”

Click the variable “STYLE” and click the arrow next to the box labeled “Columns.”

Click “Statistics” and click the box labeled “Chi-Square.”

Click Continue.

Click “Cells” and click the box labeled “Expected.”

Click Continue.

Click OK.

1. The following table includes the primary method of conflict resolution used by 20 students.

Method

Aggressive

Manipulative

Passive

Assertive

N of Students

8

2

2

8

a. Following the five steps of hypothesis testing, conduct the appropriate chi-square test to determine whether the observed frequencies are significantly different from the frequencies expected by change at the .05 level of significance. Clearly identify each of the five steps.

b. Explain your response to some who has never had a course in statistics.

2. Next, researchers categorized the students based on the primary method of conflict resolution used and whether the student had been suspended from school for misbehavior. These data are presented below.

Method

Suspended

Aggressive

Manipulative

Passive

Assertive

Total

Yes

7

1

1

1

10

No

1

1

1

7

10

Total

8

2

2

8

20

a. Following the five steps of hypothesis testing, conduct the appropriate chi-square test to determine whether the observed frequencies are significantly different from the frequencies expected by change at the .05 level of significance. Clearly identify each of the five steps.

b. Calculate the effect size.

c. Explain your response to someone who has never had a course in statistics.

Submit the following files to the Drop Box no later than Sunday of Week 8:

⎫ Word file (this file) saved as [your last name]_SOCI332_Weekly Assignment 8.doc

⎫ SPSS output file (.spv) saved as [your last name]_SPSS-week8_output

The deadline for this assignment is 11:59 PM EST on Sunday of Week 8

]]>

Word file (this file) saved as [your last name]_SOCI332_Weekly Assignment 8.doc

SPSS output file (.spv) saved as [your last name]_SPSS-week8_output

WEEKLY ASSIGNMENT 8 (the last one…you made it!)

Enter your answers in the spaces provided. Save the file using your last name as the beginning of the file name (e.g., Krieger_SOCI332_Weekly Assignment 8.doc) and submit via “Assignments.” When appropriate, show your work. You can do the work by hand, scan/take a digital picture, and attach that file with your work.

1. Make up and discuss research examples corresponding to the various techniques introduced throughout this course. Describe a plausible study for each of the following statistical procedures, indicating how it would apply and what results you would predict. Also include information about the number of participants you would assess and how you would go about estimating effect size and statistical power (when relevant).

a. correlation

b. multiple regression

c. t test for independent means

d. t test for dependent means

e. ANOVA

f. chi square for goodness of fit

g. chi-square test for independence

SPSS ASSIGNMENT

Chi-Square

SPSS instructions:

Chi-Square Test for Goodness of Fit:

Open SPSS

Remember that SPSS assumes that all the scores in a row are from the same participant. In the study presented in #1, there are 20 students, some of whom have been suspended for misbehavior. The primary conflict-resolution style used by each student is also entered. [Ignore the first variable in this analysis.]

When you have entered the data for all 20 students, move to the Variable View window and change the first variable name to “SUSPEND” and the second to “STYLE”. Set the number of decimals for both variables to zero.

Click Analyze Non-Parametric Tests Chi-Square

Click the variable “STYLE” and then the arrow next to the box labeled “Test Variable List” to indicate that the chi-square for goodness of fit should be conducted on the conflict-resolution style variable.

Note that “All categories equal” is the default selection in the “Expected Values” box, which means that SPSS will conduct the goodness of fit test using equal expected frequencies for each of the four styles, in other words, SPSS will assume that the proportions of students each style are equal.

Click OK.

Chi-Square Test for Independence:

Open SPSS

For #2, you need to add the variable “SUSPEND” to the analysis. Remember that in this problem, we are interested in whether there was an association between conflict-resolution style and having been suspended from school for misbehavior. Since the analysis will involve two nominal variables, the appropriate test is a chi-square test for independence.

Click Analyze Descriptive Statistics Crosstabs

Since “SUSPEND” is already selected, click the arrow next to the box labeled “Rows.”

Click the variable “STYLE” and click the arrow next to the box labeled “Columns.”

Click “Statistics” and click the box labeled “Chi-Square.”

Click Continue.

Click “Cells” and click the box labeled “Expected.”

Click Continue.

Click OK.

1. The following table includes the primary method of conflict resolution used by 20 students.

Method

Aggressive

Manipulative

Passive

Assertive

N of Students

8

2

2

8

a. Following the five steps of hypothesis testing, conduct the appropriate chi-square test to determine whether the observed frequencies are significantly different from the frequencies expected by change at the .05 level of significance. Clearly identify each of the five steps.

b. Explain your response to some who has never had a course in statistics.

2. Next, researchers categorized the students based on the primary method of conflict resolution used and whether the student had been suspended from school for misbehavior. These data are presented below.

Method

Suspended

Aggressive

Manipulative

Passive

Assertive

Total

Yes

7

1

1

1

10

No

1

1

1

7

10

Total

8

2

2

8

20

a. Following the five steps of hypothesis testing, conduct the appropriate chi-square test to determine whether the observed frequencies are significantly different from the frequencies expected by change at the .05 level of significance. Clearly identify each of the five steps.

b. Calculate the effect size.

c. Explain your response to someone who has never had a course in statistics.

Submit the following files to the Drop Box no later than Sunday of Week 8:

⎫ Word file (this file) saved as [your last name]_SOCI332_Weekly Assignment 8.doc

⎫ SPSS output file (.spv) saved as [your last name]_SPSS-week8_output

The deadline for this assignment is 11:59 PM EST on Sunday of Week 8

]]>

Submit the following files to the Drop Box no later than Sunday of Week 7:

Word file (this file) saved as [your last name]_SOCI332_Weekly Assignment 7.doc

SPSS output file (.spv) saved as [your last name]_SPSS-week7_output

The deadline for this assignment is 11:59 PM EST on Sunday of Week 7

WEEKLY ASSIGNMENT 7

This week you will find a balance between “mental math” and SPSS software to help solve the following problems using the five steps of hypothesis testing. Enter your answers in the spaces provided. Save the file using your last name as the beginning of the file name (e.g., Krieger_SOCI332_Weekly Assignment 7.doc) and submit via “Assignments.” When appropriate, show your work. All work should be typed into this document. Remember to include your SPSS output data file in your submission.

SPSS instructions:

Open SPSS

Analyze the data for #1. Remember that SPSS assumes that all the scores in a row are from the same participant. In this study, there are 15 participants divided into three groups of five. Therefore, each of the 15 participants will be described by two variables, type of therapy and the number of activities of daily living performed.

If “1” represents the group receiving individual therapy for 1 hour every 2 weeks, “2” represents the group receiving 1 hour of individual therapy each week, and “3” indicates the group receiving 2 hours of individual therapy each week, the first participant will be described by entering “1” in the top cell of the first column in the Data View window and “16” in the top cell of the second column to indicate that the participant underwent 1 hour of therapy every 2 weeks and performed 16 activities of daily living. The second participant will be described by “1” and “15”, and the third by “1” and “18”.

When the two variables have been entered for the five participants in this group, repeat the process for participants who underwent 1 hour of individual therapy each week, using “2” to describe their therapy group. When the two variables for the five participants in this group have been entered, repeat the process for Group 3, entering “3” in the first column. In the Variable View window, change the first variable name to “THERAPY” and the second to “ADL” and set the decimals for both to zero.

Click Analyze Compare Means One-Way ANOVA Since “THERAPY” is already selected, you can click the arrow to move the variable to the Factor window. Select “ADL” and click the arrow to move the variable to the Dependent List window, which instruct SPSS to conduct the analysis of variance on the number of activities performed.

Click “Options” and click the box labeled “Descriptive” to obtain descriptive statistics.

Click Continue.

Click OK.

1. Keep in mind that the clients in Group 1 will receive 1 hour of therapy every 2 weeks, the clients in Group 2 will receive 1 hour of therapy every week, and the clients in Group 3 will receive 2 hours of therapy every week.

Use the five steps of hypothesis testing to determine whether the observed differences in the number of activities in the following table performed by the three groups are statistically significant at the .05 level of significance. Clearly indicate each of the five steps.

Calculate the effect size for the study. Explain your results.

CLIENT

GROUP 1

GROUP 2

GROUP 3

1

16

21

24

2

15

20

21

3

18

17

25

4

21

23

20

5

19

19

22

2. Describe the circumstances under which you should use ANOVA instead of t tests, and explain why t tests are inappropriate in these circumstances.

Submit the following files to the Drop Box no later than Sunday of Week 7:

⎫ Word file (this file) saved as [YOUR LAST NAME]_SOCI332_Weekly Assignment 7.doc

⎫ SPSS output file (.spv) saved as [YOUR LAST NAME]_SPSS-week7_output

The deadline for this assignment is 11:59 PM EST on Sunday of Week 7

]]>

Submit the following files to the Drop Box no later than Sunday of Week 7:

Word file (this file) saved as [your last name]_SOCI332_Weekly Assignment 7.doc

SPSS output file (.spv) saved as [your last name]_SPSS-week7_output

The deadline for this assignment is 11:59 PM EST on Sunday of Week 7

WEEKLY ASSIGNMENT 7

This week you will find a balance between “mental math” and SPSS software to help solve the following problems using the five steps of hypothesis testing. Enter your answers in the spaces provided. Save the file using your last name as the beginning of the file name (e.g., Krieger_SOCI332_Weekly Assignment 7.doc) and submit via “Assignments.” When appropriate, show your work. All work should be typed into this document. Remember to include your SPSS output data file in your submission.

SPSS instructions:

Open SPSS

Analyze the data for #1. Remember that SPSS assumes that all the scores in a row are from the same participant. In this study, there are 15 participants divided into three groups of five. Therefore, each of the 15 participants will be described by two variables, type of therapy and the number of activities of daily living performed.

If “1” represents the group receiving individual therapy for 1 hour every 2 weeks, “2” represents the group receiving 1 hour of individual therapy each week, and “3” indicates the group receiving 2 hours of individual therapy each week, the first participant will be described by entering “1” in the top cell of the first column in the Data View window and “16” in the top cell of the second column to indicate that the participant underwent 1 hour of therapy every 2 weeks and performed 16 activities of daily living. The second participant will be described by “1” and “15”, and the third by “1” and “18”.

When the two variables have been entered for the five participants in this group, repeat the process for participants who underwent 1 hour of individual therapy each week, using “2” to describe their therapy group. When the two variables for the five participants in this group have been entered, repeat the process for Group 3, entering “3” in the first column. In the Variable View window, change the first variable name to “THERAPY” and the second to “ADL” and set the decimals for both to zero.

Click Analyze Compare Means One-Way ANOVA Since “THERAPY” is already selected, you can click the arrow to move the variable to the Factor window. Select “ADL” and click the arrow to move the variable to the Dependent List window, which instruct SPSS to conduct the analysis of variance on the number of activities performed.

Click “Options” and click the box labeled “Descriptive” to obtain descriptive statistics.

Click Continue.

Click OK.

1. Keep in mind that the clients in Group 1 will receive 1 hour of therapy every 2 weeks, the clients in Group 2 will receive 1 hour of therapy every week, and the clients in Group 3 will receive 2 hours of therapy every week.

Use the five steps of hypothesis testing to determine whether the observed differences in the number of activities in the following table performed by the three groups are statistically significant at the .05 level of significance. Clearly indicate each of the five steps.

Calculate the effect size for the study. Explain your results.

CLIENT

GROUP 1

GROUP 2

GROUP 3

1

16

21

24

2

15

20

21

3

18

17

25

4

21

23

20

5

19

19

22

2. Describe the circumstances under which you should use ANOVA instead of t tests, and explain why t tests are inappropriate in these circumstances.

Submit the following files to the Drop Box no later than Sunday of Week 7:

⎫ Word file (this file) saved as [YOUR LAST NAME]_SOCI332_Weekly Assignment 7.doc

⎫ SPSS output file (.spv) saved as [YOUR LAST NAME]_SPSS-week7_output

The deadline for this assignment is 11:59 PM EST on Sunday of Week 7

]]>

Word file (this file) saved as [your last name]_SOCI332_Weekly Assignment 6.doc

SPSS output file (.spv) saved as [your last name]_SPSS-week6_output

The deadline for this assignment is 11:59 PM EST on Sunday of Week 6

WEEKLY ASSIGNMENT 6

Enter your answers in the spaces provided. Save the file using your last name as the beginning of the file name (e.g., Krieger_SOCI332_Weekly Assignment 6.doc) and submit via “Assignments.” When appropriate, show your work. You can do the work by hand, scan/take a digital picture, and attach that file with your work.

Mental Math (10 points)

1. A manager of a small store wanted to discourage shoplifters by putting signs around the store saying “Shoplifting is a crime!” However, he wanted to make sure this would not result in customers buying less. To test this, he displayed the signs every other Wednesday for 8 weeks, for a total of 4 days displayed. He recorded the store’s sales for those four Wednesdays and then recorded the store’s sales for the four alternate Wednesdays, when the signs were not displayed. On the Wednesdays with the sign, the sales were 83, 73, 81, and 79. On the Wednesdays without the sign, sales were 84, 90, 82, and 84.

Do these results suggest that customers buy less when the signs are displayed? (Use the .05 significance level.)

a. Use the five steps of hypothesis testing.

b. Sketch the distribution involved.

c. Figure the effect size.

d. Explain what you did to a person who is familiar with the t test for a single sample but is unfamiliar with the t test for independent means.

SPSS Assignment (10 Points)

The t Test for Independent Samples

SPSS instructions to run the t Test for Independent Samples: (For more details, check the links provided under “Course Materials” in the Course Overview Folder (under Lessons).

Once you have entered the data, click on Analyze, then on Compare Means, and then click on Independent-Samples T Test…

A dialog box will appear, with your variables (student, condition, score) on the left. Your options are (a) move one or more variables into the “Test Variable(s)” box to select your dependent variables(s) and (b) move one of your variables into the “Grouping Variable” box to select the independent variables (or identify the groups to be compared).

Make “?” the dependent variable by moving it to the “Test Variable(s)” box. Then make “?” your independent variable by moving it to the “Grouping Variable” box. Now, the “Define Groups” button is functioning, click on Define Groups and another dialog box appears. Here you must specify the two values of the condition variable that represent the two groups you are comparing. Click in the box next to Group 1 and type the number 1, then click in the box next to Group 2 and type the number 2. Now you can click Continue to return to the “Independent-Samples T Test” dialog box, and click on OK to run the analysis.

1. Six months after an industrial accident, a researcher has been asked to compare the job satisfaction of employees who participated in counseling sessions with the satisfaction of employees who chose not to participate.

The scores on a job satisfaction inventory for both groups are listed in the table below.

Use the five steps of hypothesis testing to determine whether the job satisfaction scores of the group that participated in counseling are statistically higher than the scores of employees who did not participate in counseling at the .01 level of significance.

In Step 2, show all calculations.

As part of Step 5, indicate whether the researcher should recommend counseling as a method to improve job satisfaction following industrial accidents based on evaluation of the null hypothesis and calculate the effect size. NOTE: Do not forget to give a numeric value for those who participated in counseling (e.g. 0) and those who did not participate in counseling (e.g. 1).

PARTICIPATED IN COUNSELING

DID NOT PARTICIPATE IN COUNSELING

36

37

39

35

40

36

36

33

38

30

35

38

37

39

39

35

42

32

Submit the following files to the Drop Box no later than Sunday of Week 6:

⎫ Word file (this file) saved as Krieger_SOCI332_Weekly Assignment 6.doc

⎫ SPSS output file (.spv) saved as Krieger_SPSS-week6_output

The deadline for this assignment is 11:59 PM EST on Sunday of Week 6

]]>

Word file (this file) saved as [your last name]_SOCI332_Weekly Assignment 6.doc

SPSS output file (.spv) saved as [your last name]_SPSS-week6_output

The deadline for this assignment is 11:59 PM EST on Sunday of Week 6

WEEKLY ASSIGNMENT 6

Enter your answers in the spaces provided. Save the file using your last name as the beginning of the file name (e.g., Krieger_SOCI332_Weekly Assignment 6.doc) and submit via “Assignments.” When appropriate, show your work. You can do the work by hand, scan/take a digital picture, and attach that file with your work.

Mental Math (10 points)

1. A manager of a small store wanted to discourage shoplifters by putting signs around the store saying “Shoplifting is a crime!” However, he wanted to make sure this would not result in customers buying less. To test this, he displayed the signs every other Wednesday for 8 weeks, for a total of 4 days displayed. He recorded the store’s sales for those four Wednesdays and then recorded the store’s sales for the four alternate Wednesdays, when the signs were not displayed. On the Wednesdays with the sign, the sales were 83, 73, 81, and 79. On the Wednesdays without the sign, sales were 84, 90, 82, and 84.

Do these results suggest that customers buy less when the signs are displayed? (Use the .05 significance level.)

a. Use the five steps of hypothesis testing.

b. Sketch the distribution involved.

c. Figure the effect size.

d. Explain what you did to a person who is familiar with the t test for a single sample but is unfamiliar with the t test for independent means.

SPSS Assignment (10 Points)

The t Test for Independent Samples

SPSS instructions to run the t Test for Independent Samples: (For more details, check the links provided under “Course Materials” in the Course Overview Folder (under Lessons).

Once you have entered the data, click on Analyze, then on Compare Means, and then click on Independent-Samples T Test…

A dialog box will appear, with your variables (student, condition, score) on the left. Your options are (a) move one or more variables into the “Test Variable(s)” box to select your dependent variables(s) and (b) move one of your variables into the “Grouping Variable” box to select the independent variables (or identify the groups to be compared).

Make “?” the dependent variable by moving it to the “Test Variable(s)” box. Then make “?” your independent variable by moving it to the “Grouping Variable” box. Now, the “Define Groups” button is functioning, click on Define Groups and another dialog box appears. Here you must specify the two values of the condition variable that represent the two groups you are comparing. Click in the box next to Group 1 and type the number 1, then click in the box next to Group 2 and type the number 2. Now you can click Continue to return to the “Independent-Samples T Test” dialog box, and click on OK to run the analysis.

1. Six months after an industrial accident, a researcher has been asked to compare the job satisfaction of employees who participated in counseling sessions with the satisfaction of employees who chose not to participate.

The scores on a job satisfaction inventory for both groups are listed in the table below.

Use the five steps of hypothesis testing to determine whether the job satisfaction scores of the group that participated in counseling are statistically higher than the scores of employees who did not participate in counseling at the .01 level of significance.

In Step 2, show all calculations.

As part of Step 5, indicate whether the researcher should recommend counseling as a method to improve job satisfaction following industrial accidents based on evaluation of the null hypothesis and calculate the effect size. NOTE: Do not forget to give a numeric value for those who participated in counseling (e.g. 0) and those who did not participate in counseling (e.g. 1).

PARTICIPATED IN COUNSELING

DID NOT PARTICIPATE IN COUNSELING

36

37

39

35

40

36

36

33

38

30

35

38

37

39

39

35

42

32

Submit the following files to the Drop Box no later than Sunday of Week 6:

⎫ Word file (this file) saved as Krieger_SOCI332_Weekly Assignment 6.doc

⎫ SPSS output file (.spv) saved as Krieger_SPSS-week6_output

The deadline for this assignment is 11:59 PM EST on Sunday of Week 6

]]>

Submit the following files to the Drop Box no later than Sunday of Week 5:

Word file (this file) saved as [your last name]_SOCI332_Weekly Assignment 5.doc

SPSS output file (.spv) saved as [your last name]_SPSS-week5_output

The deadline for this assignment is 11:59 PM EST on Sunday of Week 5

WEEKLY ASSIGNMENT 5

Enter your answers by highlighting or bolding the correct answer. Save the file using your last name as the beginning of the file name (e.g., Krieger_SOCI332_Weekly Assignment 5.doc) and submit via “Assignments.” When appropriate, show your work. You can do the work by hand, scan/take a digital picture, and attach that file with your work.

For the following question(s): A school counselor tests the level of depression in fourth graders in a particular class of 20 students. The counselor wants to know whether the kind of students in this class differs from that of fourth graders in general at her school. On the test, a score of 10 indicates severe depression, while a score of 0 indicates no depression. From reports, she is able to find out about past testing. Fourth graders at her school usually score 5 on the scale, but the variation is not known. Her sample of 20 fifth graders has a mean depression score of 4.4. Use the .01 level of significance.

1. The counselor calculates the unbiased estimate of the population’s variance to be 15. What is the variance of the distribution of means?

A) 15/20 = 0.75

B) 15/19 = 0.79

C) 152/20 = 11.25

D) 152/19 = 11.84

2. Suppose the counselor tested the null hypothesis that fourth graders in this class were less depressed than those at the school generally. She figures her t score to be .20. What decision should she make regarding the null hypothesis?

A) Reject it

B) Fail to reject it

C) Postpone any decisions until a more conclusive study could be conducted

D) There is not enough information given to make a decision

3. Suppose the standard deviation she figures (the square root of the unbiased estimate of the population variance) is .85. What is the effect size?

A) 5/.85 = 5.88

B) .85/5 = .17

C) (5 4.4)/.85 = .71

D) .85/(5 4.4) = 1.42

For the following question(s): Professor Juarez thinks the students in her statistics class this term are more creative than most students at this university. A previous study found that students at this university had a mean score of 35 on a standard creativity test. Professor Juarez finds that her class scores an average of 40 on this scale, with an estimated population standard deviation of 7. The standard deviation of the distribution of means comes out to 1.63.

4. What is the t score?

A) (40 35)/7 = .71

B) (40 35)/1.63 = 3.07

C) (40 35)/72 = 5/49 = .10

D) (40 35)/1.632 = 5/2.66 = 1.88

5. What effect size did Professor Juarez find?

A) (40 35)/7 = .71

B) (40 35)/1.63 = 3.07

C) (40 35)/72 = 5/49 = .10

D) (40 35)/1.632 = 5/2.66 = 1.88

6. If Professor Juarez had 30 students in her class, and she wanted to test her hypothesis using the 5% level of significance, what cutoff t score would she use? (You should be able to figure this out without a table because only one answer is in the correct region.)

A) 304.11

B) 1.699

C) .113

D) 2.500

SPSS ASSIGNMENT (10 Points)

Single Sample & Dependent Samples t Tests

Review the five steps of hypothesis testing and complete the following problem. Choose one of the problems to solve below and follow the given instructions. Be sure to cut and past the appropriate result boxes from SPSS under each problem. All calculations should be coming from SPSS.

t Test for a Single Sample:

Open SPSS

Enter the number of activities of daily living performed by the depressed clients studied in #1 in the Data View window.

In the Variable View window, change the variable name to “ADL” and set the decimals to zero.

Click Analyze Compare Means One-Sample T test the arrow to move “ADL” to the Variable(s) window.

Enter the population mean (14) in the “Test Value” box.

Click OK.

1. Researches are interested in whether depressed people undergoing group therapy will perform a different number of activities of daily living after group therapy. The researchers have randomly selected 12 depressed clients to undergo a 6-week group therapy program.

Use the five steps of hypothesis testing to determine whether the average number of activities of daily living (shown below) obtained after therapy is significantly different from a mean number of activities of 14 that is typical for depressed people. (Clearly indicate each step).

Test the difference at the .05 level of significance and, for practice, at the .01 level (in SPSS this means you change the “confidence level” from 95% to 99%).

In Step 2, show all calculations.

As part of Step 5, indicate whether the behavioral scientists should recommend group therapy for all depressed people based on evaluation of the null hypothesis at both levels of significance and calculate the effect size.

CLIENT

AFTER THERAPY

A

17

B

15

C

12

D

21

E

16

F

18

G

17

H

14

I

13

J

15

K

12

L

19

t Test for Dependent Means:

Open SPSS

Enter the number of activities of daily living performed by the depressed clients studied in Problem 2 in the Data View window. Be sure to enter the “before therapy” scores in the first column and the “after therapy” scores in the second column.

In the Variable View window, change the variable name for the first variable to “ADLPRE” and the variable name for the second variable to “ADLPOST”. Set the decimals for both variables to zero.

Click Analyze Compare Means Paired-Samples T Test the arrow to move “ADLPRE” to the Paired Variable(s) window “ADLPOST” and then click the arrow to move the variable to the Paired Variable(s) window.

Click OK.

2. Researchers are interested in whether depressed people undergoing group therapy will perform a different number of activities of daily living before and after group therapy. The researchers have randomly selected 8 depressed clients in a 6-week group therapy program.

Use the five steps of hypothesis testing to determine whether the observed differences in numbers of activities of daily living (shown below) obtained before and after therapy are statistically significant at the .05 level of significance and, for practice, at the .01 level. (Clearly indicate each step).

In Step 2, show all calculations. As part of Step 5, indicate whether the researchers should recommend group therapy for all depressed people based on evaluation of the null hypothesis at both levels of significance and calculate the effect size.

CLIENT

BEFORE THERAPY

AFTER THERAPY

A

12

17

B

7

15

C

10

12

D

13

21

E

9

16

F

8

18

G

14

17

H

11

8

Submit the following files to the Drop Box no later than Sunday of Week 5:

⎫ Word file (this file) saved as Krieger_SOCI332_Weekly Assignment 5.doc

⎫ SPSS output file (.spv) saved as Krieger_SPSS-week5_output

The deadline for this assignment is 11:59 PM EST on Sunday of Week 5

]]>

Submit the following files to the Drop Box no later than Sunday of Week 5:

Word file (this file) saved as [your last name]_SOCI332_Weekly Assignment 5.doc

SPSS output file (.spv) saved as [your last name]_SPSS-week5_output

The deadline for this assignment is 11:59 PM EST on Sunday of Week 5

WEEKLY ASSIGNMENT 5

Enter your answers by highlighting or bolding the correct answer. Save the file using your last name as the beginning of the file name (e.g., Krieger_SOCI332_Weekly Assignment 5.doc) and submit via “Assignments.” When appropriate, show your work. You can do the work by hand, scan/take a digital picture, and attach that file with your work.

For the following question(s): A school counselor tests the level of depression in fourth graders in a particular class of 20 students. The counselor wants to know whether the kind of students in this class differs from that of fourth graders in general at her school. On the test, a score of 10 indicates severe depression, while a score of 0 indicates no depression. From reports, she is able to find out about past testing. Fourth graders at her school usually score 5 on the scale, but the variation is not known. Her sample of 20 fifth graders has a mean depression score of 4.4. Use the .01 level of significance.

1. The counselor calculates the unbiased estimate of the population’s variance to be 15. What is the variance of the distribution of means?

A) 15/20 = 0.75

B) 15/19 = 0.79

C) 152/20 = 11.25

D) 152/19 = 11.84

2. Suppose the counselor tested the null hypothesis that fourth graders in this class were less depressed than those at the school generally. She figures her t score to be .20. What decision should she make regarding the null hypothesis?

A) Reject it

B) Fail to reject it

C) Postpone any decisions until a more conclusive study could be conducted

D) There is not enough information given to make a decision

3. Suppose the standard deviation she figures (the square root of the unbiased estimate of the population variance) is .85. What is the effect size?

A) 5/.85 = 5.88

B) .85/5 = .17

C) (5 4.4)/.85 = .71

D) .85/(5 4.4) = 1.42

For the following question(s): Professor Juarez thinks the students in her statistics class this term are more creative than most students at this university. A previous study found that students at this university had a mean score of 35 on a standard creativity test. Professor Juarez finds that her class scores an average of 40 on this scale, with an estimated population standard deviation of 7. The standard deviation of the distribution of means comes out to 1.63.

4. What is the t score?

A) (40 35)/7 = .71

B) (40 35)/1.63 = 3.07

C) (40 35)/72 = 5/49 = .10

D) (40 35)/1.632 = 5/2.66 = 1.88

5. What effect size did Professor Juarez find?

A) (40 35)/7 = .71

B) (40 35)/1.63 = 3.07

C) (40 35)/72 = 5/49 = .10

D) (40 35)/1.632 = 5/2.66 = 1.88

6. If Professor Juarez had 30 students in her class, and she wanted to test her hypothesis using the 5% level of significance, what cutoff t score would she use? (You should be able to figure this out without a table because only one answer is in the correct region.)

A) 304.11

B) 1.699

C) .113

D) 2.500

SPSS ASSIGNMENT (10 Points)

Single Sample & Dependent Samples t Tests

Review the five steps of hypothesis testing and complete the following problem. Choose one of the problems to solve below and follow the given instructions. Be sure to cut and past the appropriate result boxes from SPSS under each problem. All calculations should be coming from SPSS.

t Test for a Single Sample:

Open SPSS

Enter the number of activities of daily living performed by the depressed clients studied in #1 in the Data View window.

In the Variable View window, change the variable name to “ADL” and set the decimals to zero.

Click Analyze Compare Means One-Sample T test the arrow to move “ADL” to the Variable(s) window.

Enter the population mean (14) in the “Test Value” box.

Click OK.

1. Researches are interested in whether depressed people undergoing group therapy will perform a different number of activities of daily living after group therapy. The researchers have randomly selected 12 depressed clients to undergo a 6-week group therapy program.

Use the five steps of hypothesis testing to determine whether the average number of activities of daily living (shown below) obtained after therapy is significantly different from a mean number of activities of 14 that is typical for depressed people. (Clearly indicate each step).

Test the difference at the .05 level of significance and, for practice, at the .01 level (in SPSS this means you change the “confidence level” from 95% to 99%).

In Step 2, show all calculations.

As part of Step 5, indicate whether the behavioral scientists should recommend group therapy for all depressed people based on evaluation of the null hypothesis at both levels of significance and calculate the effect size.

CLIENT

AFTER THERAPY

A

17

B

15

C

12

D

21

E

16

F

18

G

17

H

14

I

13

J

15

K

12

L

19

t Test for Dependent Means:

Open SPSS

Enter the number of activities of daily living performed by the depressed clients studied in Problem 2 in the Data View window. Be sure to enter the “before therapy” scores in the first column and the “after therapy” scores in the second column.

In the Variable View window, change the variable name for the first variable to “ADLPRE” and the variable name for the second variable to “ADLPOST”. Set the decimals for both variables to zero.

Click Analyze Compare Means Paired-Samples T Test the arrow to move “ADLPRE” to the Paired Variable(s) window “ADLPOST” and then click the arrow to move the variable to the Paired Variable(s) window.

Click OK.

2. Researchers are interested in whether depressed people undergoing group therapy will perform a different number of activities of daily living before and after group therapy. The researchers have randomly selected 8 depressed clients in a 6-week group therapy program.

Use the five steps of hypothesis testing to determine whether the observed differences in numbers of activities of daily living (shown below) obtained before and after therapy are statistically significant at the .05 level of significance and, for practice, at the .01 level. (Clearly indicate each step).

In Step 2, show all calculations. As part of Step 5, indicate whether the researchers should recommend group therapy for all depressed people based on evaluation of the null hypothesis at both levels of significance and calculate the effect size.

CLIENT

BEFORE THERAPY

AFTER THERAPY

A

12

17

B

7

15

C

10

12

D

13

21

E

9

16

F

8

18

G

14

17

H

11

8

Submit the following files to the Drop Box no later than Sunday of Week 5:

⎫ Word file (this file) saved as Krieger_SOCI332_Weekly Assignment 5.doc

⎫ SPSS output file (.spv) saved as Krieger_SPSS-week5_output

The deadline for this assignment is 11:59 PM EST on Sunday of Week 5

]]>

Enter your answers in the spaces provided. Save the file using your last name as the beginning of the file name (e.g., Krieger_SOCI332_Weekly Assignment 4.doc) and submit via “Assignments.” When appropriate, show your work. You can do the work by hand, scan/take a digital picture, and attach that file with your work.

1. Consider the study of the effect of a teaching method designed to increase the probability of successful completion of a statistics course on the self-esteem of students in the course.

Again, for the normally distributed known population, the Population M = 63 and the Population SD = 12.

What is the estimated effect size for samples that have completed the treatment and have means of (a) 54, (b) 57, © 60, (d) 71, and (e) 78?

For each sample mean, indicate whether the effect is approximately small, medium, or large.

PROBLEM

(Pop1 M – Pop2 M) / Pop SD

Estimated Effect Size

Effect Size

(a)

(b)

©

(d)

(e)

SPSS ASSIGNMENT

Crosstabs

For this assignment you will be using the GSS.

The Crosstabs command produces frequency distributions for multiple variables. This command is useful for describing samples where the mean is not useful (that is, nominal or ordinal scales) and as a method for getting a feel for your data.

To run crosstabs:

Click Analyze, then Descriptive Statistics, then Crosstabs. A dialog box will appear with your variables on the left-hand side and a Row(s) box, Column(s) box, and Layer 1 of 1 box. Remember that your dependent variable goes into rows and your independent variable goes into the column. Move the independent variable (e.g. SEX, RACE, INCOME) to the Row(s) box, and the dependent variable (use an attitude-variable that interests you) to the Columns(s) box. [If you wanted to analyze more than two variables, you would enter the third, fourth, fifth, etc., in the Layer 1 of 1 box].

Click on the Cells button in the bottom of the dialog box. This button allows you to specify percentages and other information that you would like from each combination of values. Once you click on Cells, another dialog box appears, select Observed under Counts; Row, Column, Total under Percentages then click on Continue. You will return to the Crosstabs dialog box, where you will click OK.

Assignment:

1. Your assignment is to run at least 3 crosstabs (with variables other than those in your final project), copy and paste them to this document and briefly explain each of them.

Submit the following files to the Drop Box no later than Sunday of Week 4:

⎫ Word file (this file) saved as [your last name]_SOCI332_Weekly Assignment 4.doc

⎫ SPSS output file (.spv) saved as [your last name]_SPSS-week4_output

The deadline for this assignment is 11:59 PM EST on Sunday of Week 4

]]>

Enter your answers in the spaces provided. Save the file using your last name as the beginning of the file name (e.g., Krieger_SOCI332_Weekly Assignment 4.doc) and submit via “Assignments.” When appropriate, show your work. You can do the work by hand, scan/take a digital picture, and attach that file with your work.

1. Consider the study of the effect of a teaching method designed to increase the probability of successful completion of a statistics course on the self-esteem of students in the course.

Again, for the normally distributed known population, the Population M = 63 and the Population SD = 12.

What is the estimated effect size for samples that have completed the treatment and have means of (a) 54, (b) 57, © 60, (d) 71, and (e) 78?

For each sample mean, indicate whether the effect is approximately small, medium, or large.

PROBLEM

(Pop1 M – Pop2 M) / Pop SD

Estimated Effect Size

Effect Size

(a)

(b)

©

(d)

(e)

SPSS ASSIGNMENT

Crosstabs

For this assignment you will be using the GSS.

The Crosstabs command produces frequency distributions for multiple variables. This command is useful for describing samples where the mean is not useful (that is, nominal or ordinal scales) and as a method for getting a feel for your data.

To run crosstabs:

Click Analyze, then Descriptive Statistics, then Crosstabs. A dialog box will appear with your variables on the left-hand side and a Row(s) box, Column(s) box, and Layer 1 of 1 box. Remember that your dependent variable goes into rows and your independent variable goes into the column. Move the independent variable (e.g. SEX, RACE, INCOME) to the Row(s) box, and the dependent variable (use an attitude-variable that interests you) to the Columns(s) box. [If you wanted to analyze more than two variables, you would enter the third, fourth, fifth, etc., in the Layer 1 of 1 box].

Click on the Cells button in the bottom of the dialog box. This button allows you to specify percentages and other information that you would like from each combination of values. Once you click on Cells, another dialog box appears, select Observed under Counts; Row, Column, Total under Percentages then click on Continue. You will return to the Crosstabs dialog box, where you will click OK.

Assignment:

1. Your assignment is to run at least 3 crosstabs (with variables other than those in your final project), copy and paste them to this document and briefly explain each of them.

Submit the following files to the Drop Box no later than Sunday of Week 4:

⎫ Word file (this file) saved as [your last name]_SOCI332_Weekly Assignment 4.doc

⎫ SPSS output file (.spv) saved as [your last name]_SPSS-week4_output

The deadline for this assignment is 11:59 PM EST on Sunday of Week 4

]]>

Submit the following files to the Drop Box no later than Sunday of Week 2:

Word file (this file) saved as Krieger_SOCI332_Weekly Assignment 3.doc

SPSS output file (.spv) saved as Krieger_SPSS-week3_output

The deadline for this assignment is 11:59 PM EST on Sunday of Week 3

Weekly ASSIGNMENT #3

Mental Math: [10 points]

Enter your answers in the spaces provided. Save the file using your last name as the beginning of the file name (e.g., Krieger_SOCI332_Weekly Assignment 3.doc) and submit via “Assignments.” When appropriate, show your work. You can do the work by hand, scan/take a digital picture, and attach that file with your work.

1. For the following research questions, create one null hypothesis (N), one directional research hypothesis (D), and one nondirectional research hypothesis (ND). Clearly indicate each of them.

a. What are the effects of attention on out-of-seat classroom behavior?

N:

D:

ND:

b. What is the relationship between the quality of a marriage and the quality of the spouses’ relationships with their siblings?

N:

D:

ND:

c. What’s the best way to treat an eating disorder?

N:

D:

ND:

2. For the following set of scores fill in the empty cells. The mean is 70 and the standard deviation is 8.

Raw Score

Z Score

68.0

_____________

_____________

-1.6

82.0

_____________

_____________

1.8

69.0

_____________

_____________

-0.5

85.0

_____________

_____________

1.7

72.0

_____________

Computing z-Scores Using SPSS

Follow the instructions below. For salary be sure to use “scale” for measure (and you will be entering the actual number so no need for values); sex is a nominal variable (Male= 1, Female=2).

In SPSS, we compute z-scores via the Descriptives command.

After you enter the data above, click Analyze, then Descriptive Statistics, then Descriptives – this will take you to the dialog box for descriptives.

In the bottom-left corner you will see a check box labeled “Save standardized values as variables”, check this box and move the variable SALARY into the right-hand blank. Then click OK to complete the analysis. You will see the standard output from the Descriptives command. Notice that the z-scores are not listed. SPSS inserts them into the data window as a new variable (ZSALARY).

Copy and paste your results from SPSS into this document.

1. The following data are from a survey of high school teachers. Using the data below, determine the z-score that corresponds to each teacher’s salary and enter them in the table below.

SALARY

SEX

ZSALARY

35,000

Male

18,000

Female

20,000

Male

50,000

Female

38,000

Male

20,000

Female

75,000

Male

40,000

Female

30,000

Male

22,000

Female

23,000

Male

45,000

Female

2. Write a brief (but thorough) analysis of what these z-scores say about each teacher’s salary.

Submit the following files to the Drop Box no later than Sunday of Week 3:

• Word file (this file) saved as Krieger_SOCI332_Weekly Assignment 3.doc

• SPSS output file (.spv) saved as Krieger_SPSS-week3_output

The deadline for this assignment is 11:59 PM EST on Sunday of Week 3

]]>

Submit the following files to the Drop Box no later than Sunday of Week 2:

Word file (this file) saved as Krieger_SOCI332_Weekly Assignment 3.doc

SPSS output file (.spv) saved as Krieger_SPSS-week3_output

The deadline for this assignment is 11:59 PM EST on Sunday of Week 3

Weekly ASSIGNMENT #3

Mental Math: [10 points]

Enter your answers in the spaces provided. Save the file using your last name as the beginning of the file name (e.g., Krieger_SOCI332_Weekly Assignment 3.doc) and submit via “Assignments.” When appropriate, show your work. You can do the work by hand, scan/take a digital picture, and attach that file with your work.

1. For the following research questions, create one null hypothesis (N), one directional research hypothesis (D), and one nondirectional research hypothesis (ND). Clearly indicate each of them.

a. What are the effects of attention on out-of-seat classroom behavior?

N:

D:

ND:

b. What is the relationship between the quality of a marriage and the quality of the spouses’ relationships with their siblings?

N:

D:

ND:

c. What’s the best way to treat an eating disorder?

N:

D:

ND:

2. For the following set of scores fill in the empty cells. The mean is 70 and the standard deviation is 8.

Raw Score

Z Score

68.0

_____________

_____________

-1.6

82.0

_____________

_____________

1.8

69.0

_____________

_____________

-0.5

85.0

_____________

_____________

1.7

72.0

_____________

Computing z-Scores Using SPSS

Follow the instructions below. For salary be sure to use “scale” for measure (and you will be entering the actual number so no need for values); sex is a nominal variable (Male= 1, Female=2).

In SPSS, we compute z-scores via the Descriptives command.

After you enter the data above, click Analyze, then Descriptive Statistics, then Descriptives – this will take you to the dialog box for descriptives.

In the bottom-left corner you will see a check box labeled “Save standardized values as variables”, check this box and move the variable SALARY into the right-hand blank. Then click OK to complete the analysis. You will see the standard output from the Descriptives command. Notice that the z-scores are not listed. SPSS inserts them into the data window as a new variable (ZSALARY).

Copy and paste your results from SPSS into this document.

1. The following data are from a survey of high school teachers. Using the data below, determine the z-score that corresponds to each teacher’s salary and enter them in the table below.

SALARY

SEX

ZSALARY

35,000

Male

18,000

Female

20,000

Male

50,000

Female

38,000

Male

20,000

Female

75,000

Male

40,000

Female

30,000

Male

22,000

Female

23,000

Male

45,000

Female

2. Write a brief (but thorough) analysis of what these z-scores say about each teacher’s salary.

Submit the following files to the Drop Box no later than Sunday of Week 3:

• Word file (this file) saved as Krieger_SOCI332_Weekly Assignment 3.doc

• SPSS output file (.spv) saved as Krieger_SPSS-week3_output

The deadline for this assignment is 11:59 PM EST on Sunday of Week 3

]]>

Submit the following files to the Drop Box no later than Sunday of Week 2:

Word file (this file) saved as [your last name]_SOCI332_Weekly Assignment 2.doc

SPSS output file (.spv) saved as [your last name]_SPSS-week2_output

The deadline for this assignment is 11:59 PM EST on Sunday of Week 2

Weekly ASSIGNMENT #2

Mental Math: [10 points]

Enter your answers in the spaces provided. Save the file using your last name as the beginning of the file name (e.g., Krieger_SOCI332_Weekly Assignment 2.doc) and submit via “Assignments.” When appropriate, show your work. You can do the work by hand, scan/take a digital picture, and attach that file with your work.

1. Which of the alternatives best describes the pattern of scores on the scatter diagram below?

A) No correlation

B) Curvilinear correlation

C) Positive linear correlation

D) Negative linear correlation

2. Which of the alternatives best describes the pattern of scores on the scatter diagram below?

A) No correlation

B) Curvilinear correlation

C) Positive linear correlation

D) Negative linear correlation

3. Which of the alternatives best describes the pattern of scores graphed below?

A) No correlation

B) Curvilinear correlation

C) Positive linear correlation

D) Negative linear correlation

4. Which of the alternatives best describes the pattern of scores graphed below?

A) Strong positive linear correlation

B) Weak negative linear correlation

C) Strong curvilinear correlation

D) Weak positive linear correlation

5. A researcher studying the relation of similarity to attraction reported the following results:

Person

Similarity

Attraction

Tested

X ZX

Y ZY

J.L.

1 1.17

3 1.18

K.M.

6 1.43

5 .39

L.B.

2 .65

6 0

R.C.

4 .39

10 1.57

M = 3.25 SD = 1.92 M = 6 SD = 2.55 r = .36

a. Give the Z score prediction formula for predicting attraction from similarity.

b. Predict the attraction to a person for whom the similarity is rated as a 5. Show your math.

c. Explain what you have done to a person who is familiar with correlation but not with regression.

SPSS ASSIGNMENT [10 points]

Creating Scatter Diagrams and More

Review and follow the steps in your text and you may want to keep SPSS Statistics 21 Brief Guide handy just in case.

1a. The following have been prepared so that data sets B through D are slightly modified versions of data set A. Make scatter diagrams and figure the correlation coefficients for each data set.

DATA SET A

DATA SET B

DATA SET C

DATA SET D

X

Y

X

Y

X

Y

X

Y

1

1

1

1

1

5

1

1

2

2

2

2

2

4

2

4

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

4

4

4

5

4

2

4

2

5

5

5

4

5

1

5

5

[Insert Scatter Diagrams here]

1b. Discuss how and why the correlations change.

Correlations

Review the steps in your text and you may want to keep SPSS Statistics 21 Brief Guide handy just in case.

2. Enter the following data into SPSS. Determine the correlation between hours of studying and grade point average in these honor students. Copy and paste your SPSS results into this document. Explain your results.

Hours of Studying

GPA

23

3.95

12

3.90

15

4.00

14

3.76

16

3.97

21

3.89

14

3.66

11

3.91

18

3.80

9

3.89

Submit the following files to the Drop Box no later than Sunday of Week 2:

⎫ Word file (this file) saved as Krieger_SOCI332_Weekly Assignment 2.doc

⎫ SPSS output file (.spv) saved as Krieger_SPSS-week2_output

The deadline for this assignment is 11:59 PM EST on Sunday of Week 2

]]>

Submit the following files to the Drop Box no later than Sunday of Week 2:

Word file (this file) saved as [your last name]_SOCI332_Weekly Assignment 2.doc

SPSS output file (.spv) saved as [your last name]_SPSS-week2_output

The deadline for this assignment is 11:59 PM EST on Sunday of Week 2

Weekly ASSIGNMENT #2

Mental Math: [10 points]

Enter your answers in the spaces provided. Save the file using your last name as the beginning of the file name (e.g., Krieger_SOCI332_Weekly Assignment 2.doc) and submit via “Assignments.” When appropriate, show your work. You can do the work by hand, scan/take a digital picture, and attach that file with your work.

1. Which of the alternatives best describes the pattern of scores on the scatter diagram below?

A) No correlation

B) Curvilinear correlation

C) Positive linear correlation

D) Negative linear correlation

2. Which of the alternatives best describes the pattern of scores on the scatter diagram below?

A) No correlation

B) Curvilinear correlation

C) Positive linear correlation

D) Negative linear correlation

3. Which of the alternatives best describes the pattern of scores graphed below?

A) No correlation

B) Curvilinear correlation

C) Positive linear correlation

D) Negative linear correlation

4. Which of the alternatives best describes the pattern of scores graphed below?

A) Strong positive linear correlation

B) Weak negative linear correlation

C) Strong curvilinear correlation

D) Weak positive linear correlation

5. A researcher studying the relation of similarity to attraction reported the following results:

Person

Similarity

Attraction

Tested

X ZX

Y ZY

J.L.

1 1.17

3 1.18

K.M.

6 1.43

5 .39

L.B.

2 .65

6 0

R.C.

4 .39

10 1.57

M = 3.25 SD = 1.92 M = 6 SD = 2.55 r = .36

a. Give the Z score prediction formula for predicting attraction from similarity.

b. Predict the attraction to a person for whom the similarity is rated as a 5. Show your math.

c. Explain what you have done to a person who is familiar with correlation but not with regression.

SPSS ASSIGNMENT [10 points]

Creating Scatter Diagrams and More

Review and follow the steps in your text and you may want to keep SPSS Statistics 21 Brief Guide handy just in case.

1a. The following have been prepared so that data sets B through D are slightly modified versions of data set A. Make scatter diagrams and figure the correlation coefficients for each data set.

DATA SET A

DATA SET B

DATA SET C

DATA SET D

X

Y

X

Y

X

Y

X

Y

1

1

1

1

1

5

1

1

2

2

2

2

2

4

2

4

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

4

4

4

5

4

2

4

2

5

5

5

4

5

1

5

5

[Insert Scatter Diagrams here]

1b. Discuss how and why the correlations change.

Correlations

Review the steps in your text and you may want to keep SPSS Statistics 21 Brief Guide handy just in case.

2. Enter the following data into SPSS. Determine the correlation between hours of studying and grade point average in these honor students. Copy and paste your SPSS results into this document. Explain your results.

Hours of Studying

GPA

23

3.95

12

3.90

15

4.00

14

3.76

16

3.97

21

3.89

14

3.66

11

3.91

18

3.80

9

3.89

Submit the following files to the Drop Box no later than Sunday of Week 2:

⎫ Word file (this file) saved as Krieger_SOCI332_Weekly Assignment 2.doc

⎫ SPSS output file (.spv) saved as Krieger_SPSS-week2_output

The deadline for this assignment is 11:59 PM EST on Sunday of Week 2

]]>

SPSS output file (.spv) saved as [your last name]_SPSS-week1_output

The deadline for this assignment is 11:59 PM EST on Sunday of Week 1

Weekly ASSIGNMENT #1

Enter your answers in the space provided below. Save the file using your last name as the beginning of the file name (e.g., Krieger_SOCI332_Weekly Assignment 1.doc) and submit via “Assignments.” When appropriate, show your work. You can do the work by hand, scan/take a digital picture, and attach that file with your work.

Mental Math: [10 points]

Read chapters 1, 2, and be sure to go through the SPSS tutorial (or “run the tutorial”).

Without the assistance of SPSS, answer the following questions. Be sure to include ALL of your math:

1. For the data in the following sample:

8, 1, 5, 1, 5

OCI

a. Find the mean, median, and mode

b. Find the standard deviation

c. Now change the score of X=8 to X=18, and find the new mean and standard deviation.

d. Describe how one extreme score influences the mean and the standard deviation

2. A survey of 1,250 people asked how often they used the Internet. 96 responded that they never use it; 214 said they rarely use it; 572 said they use it occasionally, and 368 said they used it all the time.

a. Fill in the table below with the frequencies and percentages for each category.

Remember to create a table whose categories are arranged logically.

INTERNET USAGE

f

%

N =

b. What does N equal? ________________

c. Highlight the level of measurement: Nominal, Ordinal, Interval-Ratio

SPSS Assignment [10 points]

To complete the questions below, follow these guidelines.

To Enter Data:

1. Click on the Variable View tab in the lower left corner of the screen. In the first box under the column Name, type the name you want to give the first variable (i.e., “SCORE1” – NOTE: there are no spaces allowed in the variable name). The name of your variable can be up to eight characters (no spaces a permitted by SPSS in the variable name). When you have completed this, use the down arrow and the mouse to help you name the other variable (i.e., “SCORE2”) in the data set. Do the same for the last variable (“SCORE3”)

2. Once the variable names have been entered, click on the Data View tab in the lower left corner of the screen. Click on the first cell for the first variable (where row 1 and column 1 intersect). Enter the number which corresponds to the data value and hit ENTER or RETURN. Continue this until all of the data has been entered for the first variable, and repeat for the other variable. The box below contains the data you will be entering:

SCORE 1

SCORE 2

SCORE 3

3

34

154

7

54

167

5

17

132

4

26

145

5

34

154

6

25

145

7

14

113

8

24

156

6

25

154

5

23

123

To Construct Frequency Distributions:

Click Analyze.

Go down to Descriptive Statistics.

Go over to Frequencies and click.

Click twice on the variable SCORE1. This will move the variable to the box on the right.

Make sure there is a check mark in the box Display Frequency tables, and click OK.

Follow the same procedure for variable SCORE2 then do the same for SCORE3. Or if you want to be a bit more adventurous, after you have double clicked on the variable SCORE1 (and before you click OK), double click on the variable SCORE2 and SCORE3 then click OK

To Obtain some Basic Descriptive Statistics:

Click Analyze.

Go down to Descriptive Statistics.

Go over to Frequencies and click.

Click twice on all two of the variables. This will move the variables to the box on the right.

Click on the Statistics box.

Under the Central Tendency column, click the boxes next to Mean, Median and Mode.

Under the Dispersion column, click Std. deviation. (You can also select Variance and Range)

Click Continue, and then click OK.

To Move From The Data Window To The Output Window (Or Vice Versa):

Click on Window.

Click on the window you want to view, located at the bottom of this menu.

Export output from SPSS into this file like so:

Statistics

Score1

Score2

Score3

N

Valid

10

10

10

Missing

0

0

0

Mean

5.6000

27.6000

144.3000

Std. Error of Mean

.47610

3.53773

5.29161

Median

5.5000

25.0000

149.5000

Mode

5.00

25.00a

154.00

Std. Deviation

1.50555

11.18729

16.73353

Variance

2.267

125.156

280.011

Range

5.00

40.00

54.00

Minimum

3.00

14.00

113.00

Maximum

8.00

54.00

167.00

Sum

56.00

276.00

1443.00

a. Multiple modes exist. The smallest value is shown

To Save the Output File: (Always, ALWAYS save your output files – SPSS doesn’t do it for you and it is completely separate from your data file…also SPSS keeps adding whatever you run to the output file you have open so you don’t need to have multiple output files each week – but you can if that is what you want to do.)

You must first be viewing the output window.

Click File, scroll down to Save, and click – you might want to give it a name such as:

Krieger_SPSS-week1_output

NOW, try it again! Compute the mean, median, mode, and standard deviation for the following data: (don’t forget to open a new ‘window’ in SPSS….click File, then New and choose Data).

Hospital Size (number of beds)

Infection Rate (per 1,000 admissions)

234

1.7

214

2.4

165

3.1

436

5.6

432

4.9

342

5.3

276

5.6

187

1.2

512

3.3

553

4.1

Import SPSS output here

One more time! Compute the mean, median, mode, standard deviation, variance, and range for the following data. Then answer the questions in the next section.

Test 1

Test 2

Test 3

50

50

49

48

49

47

51

51

51

46

46

55

49

48

55

48

53

45

49

49

47

49

52

45

50

48

46

50

55

53

Import SPSS output here

To Quit SPSS:

Click File.

Click Exit.

Click No when asked if you want to save the contents of your data and/or output windows (OF COURSE, say no if you have already done it!).

THE FINAL STEP:

1. Compute the mean, median, mode, and standard deviation for all variables in the dataset. Transfer your answers in the spaces provided below.

SCORE1 SCORE2 SCORE3

Mean _______ ________ _______

Median _______ ________ _______

Mode _______ ________ _______

Standard Deviation _______ ________ _______

HOSPITAL_SIZE INFECTION_RATE

Mean _________ ________

Median _________ ________

Mode _________ ________

Standard Deviation _________ ________

TEST1 TEST2 TEST3

Mean _______ ________ _______

Median _______ ________ _______

Mode _______ ________ _______

Standard Deviation _______ ________ _______

Variance _______ ________ _______

Range _______ ________ _______

For this last set of data, involving a set of three test scores over the course of a semester, answer the following questions:

Which test had the highest average score?

Which test had the smallest amount of variability?

Submit the following files to the Drop Box no later than Sunday of Week 1:

⎫ Word file (this file) saved as Krieger_SOCI332_Weekly Assignment 1.doc

⎫ SPSS output file (.spv) saved as Krieger_SPSS-week1_output

The deadline for this assignment is 11:59 PM EST on Sunday of Week 1

]]>

SPSS output file (.spv) saved as [your last name]_SPSS-week1_output

The deadline for this assignment is 11:59 PM EST on Sunday of Week 1

Weekly ASSIGNMENT #1

Enter your answers in the space provided below. Save the file using your last name as the beginning of the file name (e.g., Krieger_SOCI332_Weekly Assignment 1.doc) and submit via “Assignments.” When appropriate, show your work. You can do the work by hand, scan/take a digital picture, and attach that file with your work.

Mental Math: [10 points]

Read chapters 1, 2, and be sure to go through the SPSS tutorial (or “run the tutorial”).

Without the assistance of SPSS, answer the following questions. Be sure to include ALL of your math:

1. For the data in the following sample:

8, 1, 5, 1, 5

OCI

a. Find the mean, median, and mode

b. Find the standard deviation

c. Now change the score of X=8 to X=18, and find the new mean and standard deviation.

d. Describe how one extreme score influences the mean and the standard deviation

2. A survey of 1,250 people asked how often they used the Internet. 96 responded that they never use it; 214 said they rarely use it; 572 said they use it occasionally, and 368 said they used it all the time.

a. Fill in the table below with the frequencies and percentages for each category.

Remember to create a table whose categories are arranged logically.

INTERNET USAGE

f

%

N =

b. What does N equal? ________________

c. Highlight the level of measurement: Nominal, Ordinal, Interval-Ratio

SPSS Assignment [10 points]

To complete the questions below, follow these guidelines.

To Enter Data:

1. Click on the Variable View tab in the lower left corner of the screen. In the first box under the column Name, type the name you want to give the first variable (i.e., “SCORE1” – NOTE: there are no spaces allowed in the variable name). The name of your variable can be up to eight characters (no spaces a permitted by SPSS in the variable name). When you have completed this, use the down arrow and the mouse to help you name the other variable (i.e., “SCORE2”) in the data set. Do the same for the last variable (“SCORE3”)

2. Once the variable names have been entered, click on the Data View tab in the lower left corner of the screen. Click on the first cell for the first variable (where row 1 and column 1 intersect). Enter the number which corresponds to the data value and hit ENTER or RETURN. Continue this until all of the data has been entered for the first variable, and repeat for the other variable. The box below contains the data you will be entering:

SCORE 1

SCORE 2

SCORE 3

3

34

154

7

54

167

5

17

132

4

26

145

5

34

154

6

25

145

7

14

113

8

24

156

6

25

154

5

23

123

To Construct Frequency Distributions:

Click Analyze.

Go down to Descriptive Statistics.

Go over to Frequencies and click.

Click twice on the variable SCORE1. This will move the variable to the box on the right.

Make sure there is a check mark in the box Display Frequency tables, and click OK.

Follow the same procedure for variable SCORE2 then do the same for SCORE3. Or if you want to be a bit more adventurous, after you have double clicked on the variable SCORE1 (and before you click OK), double click on the variable SCORE2 and SCORE3 then click OK

To Obtain some Basic Descriptive Statistics:

Click Analyze.

Go down to Descriptive Statistics.

Go over to Frequencies and click.

Click twice on all two of the variables. This will move the variables to the box on the right.

Click on the Statistics box.

Under the Central Tendency column, click the boxes next to Mean, Median and Mode.

Under the Dispersion column, click Std. deviation. (You can also select Variance and Range)

Click Continue, and then click OK.

To Move From The Data Window To The Output Window (Or Vice Versa):

Click on Window.

Click on the window you want to view, located at the bottom of this menu.

Export output from SPSS into this file like so:

Statistics

Score1

Score2

Score3

N

Valid

10

10

10

Missing

0

0

0

Mean

5.6000

27.6000

144.3000

Std. Error of Mean

.47610

3.53773

5.29161

Median

5.5000

25.0000

149.5000

Mode

5.00

25.00a

154.00

Std. Deviation

1.50555

11.18729

16.73353

Variance

2.267

125.156

280.011

Range

5.00

40.00

54.00

Minimum

3.00

14.00

113.00

Maximum

8.00

54.00

167.00

Sum

56.00

276.00

1443.00

a. Multiple modes exist. The smallest value is shown

To Save the Output File: (Always, ALWAYS save your output files – SPSS doesn’t do it for you and it is completely separate from your data file…also SPSS keeps adding whatever you run to the output file you have open so you don’t need to have multiple output files each week – but you can if that is what you want to do.)

You must first be viewing the output window.

Click File, scroll down to Save, and click – you might want to give it a name such as:

Krieger_SPSS-week1_output

NOW, try it again! Compute the mean, median, mode, and standard deviation for the following data: (don’t forget to open a new ‘window’ in SPSS….click File, then New and choose Data).

Hospital Size (number of beds)

Infection Rate (per 1,000 admissions)

234

1.7

214

2.4

165

3.1

436

5.6

432

4.9

342

5.3

276

5.6

187

1.2

512

3.3

553

4.1

Import SPSS output here

One more time! Compute the mean, median, mode, standard deviation, variance, and range for the following data. Then answer the questions in the next section.

Test 1

Test 2

Test 3

50

50

49

48

49

47

51

51

51

46

46

55

49

48

55

48

53

45

49

49

47

49

52

45

50

48

46

50

55

53

Import SPSS output here

To Quit SPSS:

Click File.

Click Exit.

Click No when asked if you want to save the contents of your data and/or output windows (OF COURSE, say no if you have already done it!).

THE FINAL STEP:

1. Compute the mean, median, mode, and standard deviation for all variables in the dataset. Transfer your answers in the spaces provided below.

SCORE1 SCORE2 SCORE3

Mean _______ ________ _______

Median _______ ________ _______

Mode _______ ________ _______

Standard Deviation _______ ________ _______

HOSPITAL_SIZE INFECTION_RATE

Mean _________ ________

Median _________ ________

Mode _________ ________

Standard Deviation _________ ________

TEST1 TEST2 TEST3

Mean _______ ________ _______

Median _______ ________ _______

Mode _______ ________ _______

Standard Deviation _______ ________ _______

Variance _______ ________ _______

Range _______ ________ _______

For this last set of data, involving a set of three test scores over the course of a semester, answer the following questions:

Which test had the highest average score?

Which test had the smallest amount of variability?

Submit the following files to the Drop Box no later than Sunday of Week 1:

⎫ Word file (this file) saved as Krieger_SOCI332_Weekly Assignment 1.doc

⎫ SPSS output file (.spv) saved as Krieger_SPSS-week1_output

The deadline for this assignment is 11:59 PM EST on Sunday of Week 1

]]>